SIXTEEN WALTZES FOR PIANO DUET OR PIANO SOLO, OP. 39
Recordings: Duet: Silke-Thora Matthies & Christian Köhn [Naxos 8.553139]
Solo: Martin Jones [NI 1788]
Easy Piano: Idil Beret [Naxos 8.553426]
Two Pianos: Martha Argerich & Alexandre Rabinovitch [Teldec 4509-92257-2]

Published 1867.  Two-piano versions published posthumously, 1897.
Dedicated to Dr. Eduard Hanslick.

By 1867, all of Brahms’s large-scale piano works, the sonatas and variation sets, had been composed.  In the realm of solo piano composition, he then confined himself to sets of shorter works.  The set of sixteen waltzes, some of which contain melodies that are among Brahms’s most well-known, was among the first of these sets (the Scherzo, Op. 4 is associated with the sonatas, and the Ballades, Op. 10 are also early, falling between the sonatas and variation sets).  The set is also Brahms’s homage to his newly adopted home of Vienna.  The dedicatee, Eduard Hanslick, was a quintessential Viennese, and he rather famously noted the glorious incongruity of the “serious” North German Brahms composing a set of short piano waltzes.  They are not in the large-scale sectional mold of the Chopin piano waltzes or the orchestral examples of Johann Strauss.  Instead, all sixteen are in simple binary form.  In all except Nos. 3, 10, 13, and 16, the second part is longer (usually twice as long) as the first part and includes a varied return of that first part.  Only in Nos. 14-16 is there any variation in the repeats of either part (Part 2 in No. 15, Part 1 in No. 16, and Part 1 in the duet versions of No. 14).  The waltzes exist in more versions than any other of Brahms’s works.  Originally composed for piano duet (one piano, four hands), Brahms released a solo version by popular demand.  At the same time, he released a second solo version, simplified for amateur players in a nod to the pieces’ great popularity (they are still popular with intermediate piano students).  He contemplated a fourth version for two pianos, four hands, but his publisher declined.  He did arrange five of them (Nos. 1, 2, 11, 14, and 15) for two pianos, but these excellent versions were only released posthumously.  All versions use the opus number 39.  For various reasons, the keys of the last four waltzes are a half-step lower in the more “difficult” solo version (and in the two-piano versions of Nos. 14 and 15) than in the duet or simplified solo versions.  The key of No. 6 is also lowered a half-step in the easy solo version (only) because the original key is difficult to read. 

In the guides below, the original duet version (one piano, four hands) is used as a base for analysis and description.  Primo refers to the higher part, secondo to the lower.  Each other version of the respective waltz follows with differences outlined (between duet and solo versions, then between solo and easy piano versions).  The two-piano versions of the five waltzes for which they were composed also use the one-piano duet version as a base.  The recording of the main solo version combines Nos. 1-8 and Nos. 9-16 on one track.  The recording of the easy piano version, which is the only one of which I am aware, contains a glitch where the first part of No. 9 is on the same track as No. 8.  Since all are in binary form and in 3/4 time, form and meter are not noted for each waltz.  If a tempo marking for a waltz is indicated, it is given.  Otherwise, the “Tempo giusto” of No. 1 can be presumed.

IMSLP WORK PAGE
ONLINE SCORES FROM IMSLP (First Edition from Brahms-Institut Lübeck):
Duet Version (Note that each primo page follows its corresponding secondo page.)
Solo Version
Easy Solo Version
Two-Piano Version
ONLINE SCORES FROM IMSLP (From Breitkopf & Härtel Sämtliche Werke):
Duet Version (Each primo page follows its corresponding secondo page.)
Solo Version
Easy Solo Version
The Two-Piano Version does not appear in the Sämtliche Werke.


No. 1 in B MAJOR.  Tempo giusto.

DUET VERSION
0:00 [m. 1]--Part 1.  The primo plays the joyous and boisterous waltz theme in octaves, beginning with a rocket-like upbeat.  It features leaps of a sixth and fourth as well as downward-arching running passages.  The secondo keeps the waltz rhythm grounded with a solid bass and punctuating chords.  An unexpected turn to a minor key (D-sharp minor) comes at the end of the phrase.
0:08 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated.
0:16 [m. 9]--Part 2.  The primo quietly and secretively develops the downward-arching running passages in a contrasting phrase.  It begins back in the home key of B, then turns to E major for its second, higher sequence over a large swell in volume.  The secondo provides the rhythmic interest and ambiguity.  It establishes a cross-rhythm by grouping three two-beat units inside of two 3/4 bars (each two-beat “unit” consists of a left-hand bass note and a right-hand chord).  The long held notes in the left hand of the primo work against the cross-rhythm, or “hemiola.”
0:23 [m. 17]--The opening material returns triumphantly at a higher level, in the continuing key of E major.  While still doubled between the primo hands, it is now more fully harmonized, with added chords and notes below the melody.  The secondo returns to unambiguous 3/4 meter and its solid bass with chords.  As in Part 1, there is a key change toward the end of this phrase, but this time it wonderfully settles back on the home key of B.
0:31 [m. 9]--Part 2 repeated.  Reprise of contrasting phrase from 0:16, with an added upbeat.
0:39 [m. 17]--Reprise of climactic return of opening from 0:23.
0:50--END OF WALTZ [24 mm.]

SOLO VERSION
NOTE: In this recording, Nos. 1-8 are grouped on a single track, as are Nos. 9-16.
0:00 [m. 1]--Part 1.  This particular waltz retains most of the duet material in the solo version.  The octaves from the primo, which were split between the hands, are not only largely retained in the solo right-hand part, but even add some additional harmonies on the first beats of bars.  This is to help compensate for the left hand.  When transferring the secondo part, it must omit the chord on the first beat (which was played against a bass octave), as the hand leaps up to a single chord on the second beat of each bar.
0:10 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated.
0:17 [m. 9]--Part 2.  In the secretive contrasting phrase, practically everything from the duet version is retained.  The right hand manages to play the arching running figures along with the long held notes underneath them.  The left hand retains the cross-rhythm octaves and chords, making treacherous leaps.
0:25 [m. 17]--The return of the opening must strip away some of the thicker chords from the primo when transferring it to one hand.  Considering that the primo was doubled in octaves between the hands, not very many notes must be removed at all.  The left hand continues its treacherous leaps, which really do seem to be compensating for the missing hand.  The right hand octaves continue to the end.
0:32 [m. 9]--Part 2 repeated.  Reprise of contrasting phrase from 0:17.
0:40 [m. 17]--Reprise of climactic return of opening from 0:25.  One final left hand echo after the cadence is added to help fill in the harmony.  This “after-beat” was not included in the duet version.
0:50--END OF WALTZ [24 mm.]

EASY PIANO VERSION
0:00 [m. 1]--Part 1.  Most of the octaves are removed from the right hand, so it is only playing the melody without the doubling in octaves.  A few strategic octaves are retained.  In the left hand, the lower octaves (except the first and last) are removed from the bass notes to make the leaps to the chords more secure.  The harmony is generally much thinner.
0:07 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated.
0:14 [m. 9]--Part 2.  Even in this version, most of the contrasting phrase is retained.  The cross-rhythms are preserved in the left hand, but the chords are sometimes voiced differently to make the leaps easier.  The right hand retains the long notes below the running figures.
0:21 [m. 17]--The return of the opening music again strips away many of the octaves from the melody and the bass, making the leaps easier.  The harmony is filled out where it conveniently can be. 
0:28 [m. 9]--Part 2 repeated.  Reprise of contrasting phrase from 0:14.
0:35 [m. 17]--Reprise of climactic return of opening from 0:21.  The “after-beat” from the regular solo version is also included here, although the final chord is thinner.
0:44--END OF WALTZ [24 mm.]

TWO PIANO VERSION
0:00 [m. 1]--Part 1.  The range of two pianists each having entire keyboards to themselves greatly expands the possibilities of the duet texture.  The upbeat in the piano part playing the melody (Piano 1) is expanded to three octaves of doubling.  The right hand plays the octaves alone and the left hand adds rolled chords that are not present in any other version.  The second piano (Piano 2), can greatly expand on the punctuating chords, playing them higher on the keyboard and, because of the added rolled chords in Piano 1, on beats 2 and 3 instead of beats 1 and 2.  The left-hand octaves in the secondo are retained in Piano 2.
0:08 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated.
0:16 [m. 9]--Part 2.  The contrasting phrase is greatly fleshed out.  The cross-rhythms in Piano 2 add low octaves to the bass notes and have thicker punctuating chords.  Piano 2 even adds a new descending broken-chord line at the end of each sequence.  In Piano 1, the long notes below the running figures are also expanded to octaves, and a rising sequence in thirds is added to the left hand in response to Piano 2’s new broken-chord line.
0:23 [m. 17]--The return of the opening exploit’s the possibilities of both keyboards.  The right hand of Piano 1 plays the octaves to the end, with chords, some of the rolled, added to the left hand, as in Part 1.  Again, the punctuating chords in Piano 2, played by the right hand, are much more full than in the one-piano duet version, and they again help to fill all the beats with chords.
0:32 [m. 9]--Part 2 repeated.  Reprise of contrasting phrase from 0:16, with an added upbeat.
0:40 [m. 17]--Reprise of climactic return of opening from 0:23.  The “after-beat” in the solo versions is not heard here, in common with the main one-piano duet version.
0:52--END OF WALTZ [24 mm.]


No. 2 in E MAJOR.

DUET VERSION
0:00 [m. 1]--Part 1.  The main rhythm of this waltz remains in force throughout.  The main voice and its harmonization, played in the primo, consists of a dotted rhythm (long-short), followed by another note on the third beat of each bar.  Often, this third note is the same as the second (short) note.  The accompanying voice, played in the secondo, adds repeated chords under the first long note of each primo bar, coming together with the primo on the third beat.  The left hand of the secondo plays a bass in open two-note harmonies.  The waltz is marked dolce, and is quite delicate, despite its steady flow.  The first part ends with rising pitches and a half-close, the secondo continuing its rhythm after the cadence.
0:13 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated.  The end of the first statement merges beautifully with the repeat’s initial upbeat.
0:24 [m. 9]--Part 2.  The contrasting phrase preserves the pervasive main rhythm after the upbeat leading in from Part 1.  It moves to minor keys, first the minor variant of the home key, which is E minor, then the closely related B minor.  The left hand of the secondo reduces the bass line to single notes, sometimes more active and also broken with rests.  The right hand accompanying rhythm is preserved until the sixth bar, which has a three-chord descent in straight rhythm.  In the last two bars of the phrase, the right hand of the primo is left alone on a rising octave to transition back to the main melody.
0:38 [m. 17]--In a very satisfying return, the opening melody is stated exactly as at the opening for five bars.  On the sixth, it strives higher to reach a complete cadence in E.  Before the cadence, the right hand of the primo breaks the main rhythm to emphasize the final upward leap.  The right hand of the secondo again breaks its accompanying rhythm for a straight three-chord descent.
0:50 [m. 9]--Part 2 repeated.  Reprise of the minor-key contrasting phrase from 0:24.  The secondo begins its accompanying rhythm right after the previous cadence.
1:04 [m. 17]--Reprise of the returning opening melody and its high-reaching cadence from 0:38.  Full close with a final echoing after-beat chord in the secondo.
1:22--END OF WALTZ [24 mm.]

SOLO VERSION
0:51 [m. 1]--Part 1.  Most of the primo is directly transferred to the right hand, including the lower voice from its left hand, except for some minor voicing alterations.  The left hand also has most of the secondo material, but the two-note bass harmonies are rolled to make the jump up to the punctuating accompanying rhythm more manageable.  Some of the thicker chords at the end of the section in the duet must be thinned.
1:06 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated.  As in the duet, the merge into the upbeat is highly effective.
1:20 [m. 9]--Part 2.  Again, most of the primo is transferred to the right hand in the contrasting phrase, but since the duet texture in both hands is thicker, more of the lower doublings are cut.  The left hand has almost all of the secondo material, including the three-chord descent. Five of the lowest bass notes are raised an octave.
1:35 [m. 17]--The return of the opening still retains most of the duet material except for a few voicing changes and, at the end, the omission of some of the lowest primo notes in the right hand.  The left hand, however, replaces the three-chord descent with a large leap from a bass octave to two higher chords.  The transitional chord to the repeat is also thinner.
1:50 [m. 9]--Part 2 repeated.  Reprise of the contrasting phrase from 1:20.  The left hand begins its accompanying rhythm right after the previous cadence.
2:05 [m. 17]--Reprise of the returning opening melody and its cadence from 1:35.  The echoing after-beat chord is retained.
2:23--END OF WALTZ [24 mm.]

EASY PIANO VERSION
0:00 [m. 1]--Part 1.  The most important variation is the omission of the low two-note rolled harmonies in the left hand in favor of single notes an octave higher to avoid the large jumps to the accompanying rhythm.  The right hand is also much thinner, strategically removing both inner chord notes and lower octaves.
0:13 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated.
0:25 [m. 9]--Part 2.  The texture of the right hand is again greatly thinned in the contrasting phrase, but the left hand actually retains most of the material.  For the three-chord descent, only the essential harmony is retained and the top voice of the descent is transferred to the right hand.
0:38 [m. 17]--As at the opening, the return thins out the right hand and moves the two-note rolled harmonies up to an octave to single bass notes.  At the end, the leaping octaves in the right hand are changed to one octave split between the hands.  The large left hand leap that replaces the three-chord descent is made easier by removing the lower octave from the first bass note.
0:51 [m. 9]--Part 2 repeated.  Reprise of the contrasting phrase from 0:25.  The accompanying rhythm begins right after the cadence.
1:05 [m. 17]--Reprise of the returning opening melody and its cadence from 0:38.  The echoing after-beat chord is still present.
1:21--END OF WALTZ [24 mm.]

TWO PIANO VERSION
0:00 [m. 1]--Part 1.  The additional piano allows both the main rhythm and the accompanying rhythm to be greatly fleshed out from the one-piano duet version.  In Piano 1, the main rhythm is doubled in the piano’s middle range by the left hand, and the accompanying rhythm is brought up to the treble register in Piano 2.  The left hand of Piano 2 adds doubling chords to much of the accompanying rhythm.
0:16 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated, with an especially rich transition into the upbeat.
0:31 [m. 9]--Part 2.  At the beginning of the transitional phrase, Piano 1 is the same as the primo, but at the end, a higher octave is added to the last upward-reaching bars, including the two-bar transitional rising octaves.  Piano 2 is more adventurous, greatly fleshing out the secondo and utilizing the higher register unavailable to that part in the single-piano duet version.  The three-chord descent is presented in its most lush form, reaching quite high in Piano 2.
0:46 [m. 17]--The return of the opening is the same as the opening itself until its higher reaching full close.  Again, Piano 1 makes use of the bass register for the main rhythm and Piano 2 uses the treble register for the accompanying rhythm.  The three-chord descent again reaches high in Piano 2.
1:02 [m. 9]--Part 2 repeated.  Reprise of the contrasting phrase from 0:31.  The accompanying rhythm in Piano 2 begins right after the cadence.
1:18 [m. 17]--Reprise of the returning opening melody and its cadence from 0:46.  The echoing after-beat chord at the end is thicker than in any other version, the higher register being available in Piano 2.
1:39--END OF WALTZ [24 mm.]


No. 3 in G-SHARP MINOR.

DUET VERSION
0:00 [m. 1]--Part 1.  The waltz has a quiet, melancholy flavor, with a languid “long-short-short-short” figure dominating the primo part.  The line is doubled above in octaves.  The secondo breaks its rhythm into bass octaves on the first beats of bars, and right-hand chords on the other two.  The eight-bar phrase moves toward its related major key (B).
0:12 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated.
0:23 [m. 9]--Part 2.  The secondo continues with the same pattern, with the bass octaves reaching quite low in the second half of the phrase and being added to third beats in all but the second and fourth bars.  In the primo, the right hand plays alone in the first half.  The left hand takes over the melody halfway through as the waltz strongly turns back to minor, with the right hand adding high decorative counterpoint before the wistful cadence.  The primo counterpoint line leads into the repeat.
0:36 [m. 9]--Part 2 repeated.  Final cadence cuts off the counterpoint before the lead-in.
0:53--END OF WALTZ [16 mm.]

SOLO VERSION
2:24 [m. 1]--Part 1.  There are two major differences from the duet version.  First, the left hand, which takes most of the secondo part, only plays single bass notes on the first beats instead of octaves.  Second, the right hand, taking over the primo, does not double its line in the high octave.
2:39 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated.
2:51 [m. 9]--Part 2.  The right hand is the same as the duet primo in the first half.  In the second half, the right hand plays both the melody and the (slightly altered) high counterpoint, effectively duplicating both hands of the primo.  The left hand still only has single bass notes, but must combine these with chords when they are on third beats.  The counterpoint again leads to the repeat.
3:06 [m. 9]--Part 2 repeated.  The last chord is actually fuller than in the duet version.
3:25--END OF WALTZ [16 mm.]

EASY PIANO VERSION
0:00 [m. 1]--Part 1.  Some chords and leaps are slightly simplified.
0:12 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated.
0:23 [m. 9]--Part 2.  Again, chords are simplified or are indicated to be rolled to accommodate smaller hands.  The counterpoint in the second half is completely omitted, with only minor harmonies added to the end of the melody to compensate.
0:36 [m. 9]--Part 2 repeated.
0:52--END OF WALTZ [16 mm.]


No. 4 in E MINOR.  Poco sostenuto.

DUET VERSION
0:00 [m. 1]--Part 1.  The waltz is marked forte and appassionato.  It has the character of the composer’s Hungarian Dances.  Some flexibility of rhythm is appropriate.  A turn figure on an upbeat begins things in the primo.  The two hands harmonize, mostly in sixths.  Two more of the turn figures are heard on upbeats.  The secondo plays bass notes and octaves in the left hand, punctuating offbeat chords in the right.  The music intensifies toward the end of the phrase as it moves to B minor.  The turn figure leads to the repeat.
0:11 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated.  The turn figure is retained to lead to Part 2.
0:22 [m. 9]--Part 2.  In a contrasting phrase, the primo begins playing octaves in the left hand.  These are passed to the right hand while the left hand starts to harmonize.  In the second half of the phrase, the left hand takes the leading role with the right hand adding high syncopated responses.  The secondo begins by playing octaves, some of them displaced, between the hands.  In the second half, the left hand plays low octaves while the right hand joins the primo left hand in the leading role.  The second half intensifies greatly for the return.
0:32 [m.17]--Varied return of the opening phrase.  Both hands of the primo now play harmonized sixths at the climactic return.  The phrase is altered, intensified, and lengthened by two bars.  It remains in E minor.  The secondo right hand chords become more numerous, and they play on downbeats in the last four bars.  The upbeat turn figure leads to the repeat.
0:46 [m. 9]--Part 2 repeated.  Reprise of contrasting phrase from 0:22.
0:56 [m. 17]--Reprise of returning altered and intensified phrase from 0:32.  Emphatic closing.
1:13--END OF WALTZ [26 mm.]

SOLO VERSION
3:26 [m. 1]--Part 1.  The harmonies from the primo must now be taken by the right hand alone.  The combining of the bass notes and the punctuating chords from the secondo leads to some wide leaps and rolled tenths in the left hand.
3:38 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated.
3:48 [m. 9]--Part 2.  For the contrasting phrase, the octaves and harmonies from the primo are combined and slightly simplified in the right hand.  The octaves in the secondo are played by the left hand.  The syncopated responses in the second half of the duet version are omitted here.  Brahms compensates by adding heavy accents to the melody notes in the right hand.
3:57 [m. 17]--In the varied return, most of the primo minus some octave doubling in the harmonized sixths, is transferred to the right hand.  The left hand is given a workout to compensate for the missing hands, making wide leaps and rolling all the thick chords in the second half of the phrase.
4:09 [m. 9]--Part 2 repeated.  Reprise of contrasting phrase from 3:48.
4:20 [m. 17]--Reprise of varied opening phrase from 3:57.
4:35--END OF WALTZ [26 mm.]

EASY PIANO VERSION
0:00 [m. 1]--Part 1. The right hand is mostly unaltered.  The left hand is greatly simplified.  The low bass notes are brought up an octave to avoid the wide leaps.  The octave and tenth doublings in some bas notes are dispensed with.  The punctuating chords are greatly reduced in thickness.
0:10 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated.
0:20 [m. 9]--Part 2.  The “difficult” solo version simplifies much from the duet version already in the contrasting phrase, and in the easy version, other than some minor phrasings and accentuations, both hands are largely unchanged.  In the second half, Brahms does reduce the octaves in the left hand to single notes, but he gives the player the option of adding the lower octave.
0:28 [m. 17]--For the varied return, many of the sixths in the right hand are reduced to single notes.  Some octaves and harmonies in the intensifying second half are also dispensed with.  The left hand bass notes are brought up an octave and the huge chords are greatly thinned out.  Most are not rolled.  The higher bass notes help the wide leaps to be avoided.
0:40 [m. 9]--Part 2 repeated.  Reprise of contrasting phrase from 0:20.
0:48 [m. 17]--Reprise of varied opening phrase from 0:28.
1:02--END OF WALTZ [26 mm.]


No. 5 in E MAJOR.
Note: This waltz uses the same musical material as the vocal quartet “Der Gang zum Liebchen,” Op. 31, No. 3, which is in E-flat major, a half-step lower.

DUET VERSION
0:00 [m. 1]--Part 1.  The waltz is marked dolce (sweetly).  The very gentle melody begins with an upbeat and features a dotted (long-short) rhythm at the beginning of each two-bar unit.  It is initially buried in an inner voice, played by the left hand of the primo.  The right hand plays repeated octave B’s.  After two bars, the melody climbs to the top and the octaves begin to move as an inner voice, with the hands now doubled an octave apart.  This alternation repeats twice more in two-bar units, with the melody moving again to the lower, then the upper voice.  The secondo plays a very flowing accompaniment, including chords after the beats in the last four bars, with a steady, solid bass.  The section moves to B major at the end.
0:16 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated.
0:32 [m. 9]--Part 2.  The contrasting phrase moves to F-sharp minor, then quickly back to E, still using the rich harmonies and inner voices.  The dotted rhythms pass between them and obscure which voice is the “melody.”  Accented, resolving “sigh” figures abound.  The secondo continues its flowing accompaniment. After four bars, the next phrase is an exact repetition of the first half of Part 1 in the primo, but with a new sustained pedal-point bass held from the first four bars (on the “dominant” note B) in the secondo.
0:47 [m. 17]--The closing passage of Part 2, only six bars long, feels like a long phrase extension, beginning with a strong key change to A major over mild accents.  The main melody is slightly varied and heard in that key, again passing from an inner to an outer voice, the hands doubled an octave apart.  The final two bars wrench the music suddenly back home to E in a harmonized descending line.  The top voice ends on the third of the chord, not the keynote, giving the close a sense of wistful timelessness.  The flowing accompaniment in the secondo becomes even more active and the low bass chords somewhat heavier.
1:01 [m. 9]--Part 2 repeated.  Restatement of contrasting phrase and return of opening from 0:32.
1:17 [m. 17]--Restatement of the six-bar closing passage moving to A major and back from 0:47.
1:35--END OF WALTZ [22 mm.]

SOLO VERSION
4:36 [m. 1]--Part 1.  The octave doubling in the initial primo B’s, as well as the complete doubling between the hands in the rest of the primo, is omitted, and the right hand covers everything in one octave (including some lower octaves in the second half).  The top voice is an octave lower than in the duet version throughout.  The inner voice and the passing of the melody between the top and the middle is retained.  The secondo is completely altered.  The flowing accompaniment is replaced by a slower left-hand chord accompaniment.
4:52 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated.
5:08 [m. 9]--Part 2.  In the first four contrasting bars, the entire primo is able to be retained in the right hand.  The return of the opening adds a lower (not a higher) octave on the repeated B’s that was not there in Part 1.  The left hand continues to replace the flowing secondo with harmonies that move more closely with the right hand.  The return of the opening also adds two low B’s to emphasize the sustained pedal point.
5:24 [m. 17]--The six-bar closing passage reduces the left hand to the heavy bass chords at the beginning, played an octave higher than in the duet version.  The right hand adds extra octave notes to the harmony (simulating the complete doubling in the duet version) as it moves to A major and back.  The top voice is again an octave lower than in the duet version.
5:37 [m. 9]--Part 2 repeated.  Restatement of contrasting phrase and return of opening from 5:08.
5:52 [m. 17]--Restatement of the six-bar closing passage moving to A major and back from 5:24.
6:09--END OF WALTZ [22 mm.]

EASY PIANO VERSION
0:00 [m. 1]-- The harmonies in the left hand are somewhat simplified, including the omission of a top line that doubled the melody in the third and fourth bars.  A lower octave doubling of the top voice in the last four bars is removed.  The bass notes in the last two bars are an octave higher.
0:12 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated.
0:24 [m. 9]--Part 2.  In the first contrasting bars, the inner voice is transferred from the right hand to an octave lower in the left hand, whose pedal bass (low B’s) is moved up an octave.  The return of the opening dispenses with the lower octave Bs in both hands.  The pedal point is retained at a higher level.
0:37 [m. 17]--The six-bar closing passage makes the left hand chords less heavy by removing their top voice.  One low bass note in the penultimate bar is raised an octave.  The extra octave notes are removed from the right hand in the motion to A major.
0:49 [m. 9]--Part 2 repeated.  Restatement of contrasting phrase and return of opening from 0:24.
1:04 [m. 17]--Restatement of the six-bar closing passage moving to A major and back from 0:37.
1:18--END OF WALTZ [22 mm.]


No. 6 in C-SHARP MAJOR (C MAJOR in easy piano version).   Vivace.

DUET VERSION
0:00 [m. 1]--Part 1.  The key of C-sharp major, with its many black keys, is conducive to the rapid, light skittering of this waltz, made easier when played mostly on black keys.  There are two four-bar phrases, each of which uses the same rhythmic structure.  For the first two bars, the secondo imposes cross-rhythms, implying three 2/4 bars on top of the 3/4 rhythm.  The primo, with its single voice split between the hands, fits into this pattern.  The third and fourth bars revert to clear 3/4 in both parts, with two voices in the primo and a more regular grouping of bass and chords in the secondo.  There is a sense of breathless anxiety.
0:06 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated.  At the end, as in the first statement, it turns to the related A-sharp minor.
0:12 [m. 9]--Part 2.  For the contrasting phrase, the melodic interest, a low, intense murmuring with many repeated notes, moves down to the secondo.  The primo takes an accompanying role with punctuating chords.  The 3/4 meter is clear.  The secondo retains short, detached bass notes in the left hand.  The phrase is extended for four bars as the murmuring line moves up to the primo, reaching ever higher, and the secondo gradually drops out.  The phrase moves to E major, an only obliquely related key.
0:22 [m. 21]--The opening material returns in a rather abrupt re-establishment of the home key.  The first phrase is the same as in Part 1.  The second phrase changes course, turning briefly to the home minor key on C-sharp.  It still retains the implied 2/4 for its first two bars.  The second phrase is extended by six bars to move back to major.  These new bars add arch-like lines and rolled chords to the primo to emphasize the closing.  A reiteration of the last gesture serves as a transition to the repeat.
0:33 [m. 9]--Part 2 repeated.  Reprise of contrasting phrase from 0:12.
0:42 [m. 21]--Reprise of opening material and extension from 0:22.  The transition is replaced by a thumping and emphatic low octave C-sharp in the secondo.
0:56--END OF WALTZ [34 mm.]

SOLO VERSION
6:10 [m. 1]--Part 1.  Most of the material is retained, even  most of the low bass notes from the secondo, which necessitate treacherous jumps in the left hand at this rapid speed.  The cross-rhythms are also preserved.  The right hand must omit many of the original octaves for the skittering main line from the primo, but the second voice in the last two bars of each phrase is retained.
6:16 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated.
6:23 [m. 9]--Part 2.  In a major change of texture and voicing from the duet version, the murmuring melody of the contrasting phrase is played by the right hand.  The left hand has not only the original bass notes of the secondo but also extremely wide jumps to chords preserving some of the harmony of the primo.  It crosses over the right hand to play these.  All of the murmuring line is retained, including the rapid rise up the keyboard from the transition to the primo in the duet.  Here, the right hand plays it throughout.
6:32 [m. 21]--The opening returns, and the first phrase is the same as in Part 1.  As in the duet, the second phrase turns to minor and is extended.  The large leaps in the left hand, the removal of the octaves of the right, and the retaining of the second voice at the end of each phrase, are all still present.  The extension removes three rolled chords that the right hand cannot play with the arch-like lines.  The transition, played mostly by the primo in the duet version, is split between the hands.
6:43 [m. 9]--Part 2 repeated.  Reprise of contrasting phrase from 6:23.
6:53 [m. 21]--Reprise of opening material and extension from 6:32.  The transition is replaced by the emphatic low octave C-sharp in the left hand.
7:08--END OF WALTZ [34 mm.]

EASY PIANO VERSION
This is the only waltz whose key is specifically changed for the easy piano version.  It is the most simplified of all the waltzes in this version.
0:00 [m. 1]--Part 1.  In addition to removing the octaves, the contour of the skittering main line is altered in several places to minimize jumps.  The key change removes the many sharps, which are difficult for beginning pianists to read, replacing them with the white keys of C major.  The other simplifications compensate for the loss of the more secure grip of the black keys.  The second voice at the end of each phrase is only implied.  The left hand bass notes are moved up an octave to avoid the large jumps, and the punctuating chords are simplified.  The cross-rhythms are preserved.  The related key at the end is A minor rather than A-sharp minor due to the basic key change.
0:06 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated.
0:13 [m. 9]--Part 2.  The contrasting phrase is greatly altered.  The murmuring melody is moved up an octave to avoid the hand crossing from the left hand.  The left hand is simplified in two ways--the bass notes are moved up an octave and the punctuating chords are moved down.  This reduces the jumps by almost two octaves and, in addition to the higher melody, eliminates the hand crossing.  The extension is altered somewhat since the rise up the keyboard does not have as far to go.  The new key at the end is E-flat major rather than E major.
0:23 [m. 21]--The opening returns, and again, the first phrase is the same as in Part 1.  The altered second phrase makes a detour to the home minor key on C.  The second voice is heard more clearly at the end of the second phrase.  The extension adds rolled chords to the left hand for ease of execution.
0:34 [m. 9]--Part 2 repeated.  Reprise of contrasting phrase from 0:13.
0:44 [m. 21]--Reprise of opening material and extension from 0:23.  The emphatic low C at the end has its lower octave from the main solo and duet versions removed.
0:58--END OF WALTZ [34 mm.]


No. 7 in C-SHARP MINOR.  Poco più Andante

DUET VERSION
0:00 [m. 1]--Part 1.  This waltz is slower and contains somewhat more content than the previous waltzes.  While Part 2 is greatly extended, Part 1 is of normal length.  The melody has the character of a minor-key lullaby with several dotted (long-short) rhythms.  The primo plays it in octaves, reaching higher and higher.  The secondo plays a rocking octave bass that reaches low as the primo reaches high.  Two descending chords in the right hand are heard on the off-beats of each bar.  Smooth transition into the repeat.
0:17 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated.  The last bar is altered to change keys and lead into Part 2.
0:34 [m. 9]--Part 2.  The lullaby continues in major keys, E major then B major.  The melody in the primo is now harmonized in thirds.  The same pattern of rocking octaves and off-beat chords continues in the secondo.  The rocking bass octaves remain at the same level, creating a “pedal point.”
0:45 [m. 15]--The lullaby moves back through another minor key and its related major key, F-sharp minor and A major.  For the last half of this six-bar phrase, the bass abandons the rocking pattern and moves slowly upward, sliding toward the new key of A.
0:58 [m. 21]--Transitional phrase striving upward and reaching toward the main key of C-sharp.  The volume steadily builds.  The secondo resumes its prevailing pattern.  The climax arrives with extended notes and a slow cross rhythm with a chord held across a bar line.  This implies a single 3/2 bar across two notated 3/4 bars.  In this implied 3/2 bar, the secondo bass slides upward.  Another chord held across a bar line merges into a gentle descending arpeggio leading back into the home key and the waltz rhythm.
1:16 [m. 29]--At the arrival point, the opening melody of Part 1 is reprised, but surprisingly, it is not in C-sharp major, not minor.  The result is an incredibly satisfying, warm, and rich six-bar conclusion.  The melody is passed from the primo right hand to the left, where the last rising gesture is stated three times with high right-hand octaves before the highly anticipated cadence is interrupted by the repeat of Part 2.  The secondo retains its rocking octaves and off-beat chords (which move “out” instead of down in the last three bars) throughout.
1:30 [m. 9]--Part 2 repeated.  Reprise of phrase in E major and B major harmonized in thirds from 0:34.
1:42 [m. 15]--Reprise of movement through F-sharp minor and A major from 0:45.
1:55 [m. 21]--Reprise of transitional phrase and climax with implied 3/2 bar from 0:58.
2:13 [m. 29]--Reprise of arrival point and major-key version of Part 1 from 1:16.  This time the cadence is not interrupted.
2:31 [m. 35]--The long-delayed final arrival is confirmed gently but decisively by two long C-sharp major chords.  The waltz, which began as a minor-key lullaby, ends soothingly in major.
2:41--END OF WALTZ [36 mm.]

SOLO VERSION
7:09 [m. 1]--Part 1.  While the left hand must abandon the rocking octaves, playing only a low bass note or octave in each bar and leaping to the off-beat descending chords, the right hand actually expands on the primo, adding some harmonization in thirds to the lullaby melody.
7:24 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated with altered last bar leading into Part 2.
7:40 [m. 9]--Part 2.  Movement through the major keys of E and B.  The right hand continues to duplicate both hands of the primo in their entirety and even adding to them.  The left hand continues its previous pattern, but halfway through this phrase switches to the rocking octaves and plays only one off-beat chord.
7:50 [m. 15]--Motion through F-sharp minor to A major.  The right hand continues to duplicate the primo, and the left hand returns to the leaps between bass notes and chords, replicating the sliding bass at the end of the phrase while still leaping to the notes played by the secondo right hand.
8:01 [m. 21]--Transitional phrase moving to C-sharp.  As the music approaches the climax and the implied 3/2 bar, the right hand must abandon some of the now thicker primo part, but the left hand more than makes up for this with its wide leaps between low bass octaves and thick chords, including a dramatic rolled chord right after the climactic high chords.  Arpeggio leading back to home key and waltz rhythm.
8:17 [m. 29]--Arrival point with major-key reprise of Part 1 material.  The right hand manages the entire passage down of the melody, omitting only the highest level of the bell-like sounds at the end.  The left hand returns to its usual pattern of bass notes leaping to a pair of off-beat chords.  Interrupted cadence as Part 2 is repeated.
8:30 [m. 9]--Part 2 repeated.  Reprise of phrase in E major and B major from 7:40.
8:41 [m. 15]--Reprise of movement through F-sharp minor and A major from 7:50.
8:52 [m. 21]--Reprise of transitional phrase and climax with implied 3/2 bar from 8:01.
9:08 [m. 29]--Reprise of arrival point and major-key version of Part 1 from 8:17.  No interrupted cadence.
9:23 [m. 35]--Two long C-sharp major chords confirming the delayed cadence.  These are significantly thinner than in the duet version.
9:29--END OF WALTZ [36 mm.]

EASY PIANO VERSION
0:00 [m. 1]--Part 1.  The right hand removes some of the lower octaves, but also some of the added harmony.  The bass notes of the left hand are moved up an octave and any octave doublings removed
0:11 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated with altered last bar leading into Part 2.
0:23 [m. 9]--Part 2.  Movement through E and B major.  The lower octave is removed from the right hand chords, and the left hand simplifies the descending off-beat chords as well as eliminating the octaves at the end of the phrase.
0:31 [m. 15]--Motion through F-sharp minor to A major.  The right hand continues its previous pattern.  The left-hand bass notes move briefly to a lower octave to emphasize the sliding motion.  The required leaps, though not as wide as in the “main” solo version, are unusual for the “easy” version.
0:40 [m. 21]--Transitional phrase.  The motion to the climax is simplified as little as possible, the right hand almost retaining its original form.  The left hand, however, moves the bass notes two octaves higher at the implied 3/2 bar so that there will not need to be huge leaps to the chords vital to the harmony, as there are in the “main” solo version.  The rolled chord is retained.  The transitional arpeggio is reduced to a one octave.
0:53 [m. 29]--Arrival point with major-key reprise of Part 1 material.  This gentle closing is nearly unaltered except for the bass notes being moved up an octave, and even the last of these is lowered to the original pitch to preserve the effect of the interrupted (and later fulfilled) cadence.
1:03 [m. 9]--Part 2 repeated.  Reprise of phrase in E major and B major from 0:23.
1:13 [m. 15]--Reprise of movement through F-sharp minor and A major from 0:31.
1:23 [m. 21]--Reprise of transitional phrase with implied 3/2 bar from 0:40.
1:36 [m. 29]--Reprise of arrival point and major-key version of Part 1 from 0:53.  No interrupted cadence.
1:48 [m. 35]--Two long C-sharp major chords.  They eliminate the lowest octave C-sharp from the chords in the “main” solo version.
1:54--END OF WALTZ [36 mm.]


No. 8 in B-FLAT MAJOR.

DUET VERSION
0:00 [m. 1]--Part 1.  The three-note upbeat with a leaping octave is characteristic.  The waltz is quite lively, with a persistent dotted-rhythm pattern similar to that of #2, but much lighter and with more leaping up and down.  This is doubled between the hands in the primo.  The secondo establishes a steady waltz rhythm with low bass notes and off-beat chords, as in #7.  The patterns down and up are reiterated somewhat.  There is a strong motion to F major at the end, colored with an important dissonance (D-flat).  This motion is also reiterated, stretching the phrase to an unexpected twelve bars.
0:12 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated.
0:24 [m. 13]--Part 2.  The same three-note upbeat leads to a contrasting phrase in the key of D-flat major (a key the previous dissonance at the end of Part 1 implied).  This key, in relation to the main key of B-flat, has an almost otherworldly feel.  The patterns continue in both parts.  This phrase is a more standard eight bars long, and turns away from D-flat in the last bar.  Here, a melody note is held over a bar line.
0:32 [m. 21]--The final phrase continues the patterns in both parts and, at ten bars, finds a medium between the lengths of the other two phrases.  Beginning with another note held over a bar line, it returns to the home key of B-flat major via E-flat major  The final patterns settle very quietly onto a satisfying cadence.  The steady, persistent pattern in the secondo leads to the repeat.
0:42 [m. 13]--Part 2 repeated.  Reprise of phrase in D-flat major from 0:24.
0:50 [m. 21]--Reprise of final phrase and motion back to B-flat from 0:32.  The secondo finally closes with a low B-flat after the cadence, having been moving perpetually in its pattern from the waltz’s beginning.
1:05--END OF WALTZ [30 mm.]

SOLO VERSION
9:30 [m. 1]--Part 1.  The music is marked sotto voce, which does not appear in the duet version.  After the upbeat, the right hand includes the harmonies of the primo and only cuts off the lowest doubling of the harmonization from the original left hand.  The secondo is simplified quite considerably in the left hand to preserve stamina as well as the character of perpetual motion in the pattern.  Rests are added to the second beat of each bar, and there is only one off-beat chord in each, on the third beat.  Three of these toward the end are rolled for emphasis.
9:45 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated.
10:00 [m. 13]--Part 2.  The same basic pattern continues for the contrasting phrase in D-flat.  The left hand rolls another chord at the point where the melody is held over a bar line in preparation for the final phrase.
10:10 [m. 21]--The patterns continue for the final phrase returning to B-flat major.  Two more rolled chords follow the second note held over a bar line in the right hand.  Another is heard right before the final patterns before the cadence.  Although the left hand is substantially simplified from the secondo, it still retains its forward-driving character and propels the music into the repeat.
10:23 [m. 13]--Part 2 repeated.  Reprise of phrase in D-flat major from 10:00.
10:34 [m. 21]--Reprise of final phrase and motion back to B-flat from 10:10.  The secondo ends its perpetual motion with a final low B-flat, as in the duet version.
10:50--END OF WALTZ [30 mm.]
(End of Track)

EASY PIANO VERSION
NOTE: The first part of No. 9 is on the same track as No. 8 (CD production error)
0:00 [m. 1]--Part 1.  The top melody of the right hand is brought down an octave and the texture is reduced generally to two notes, a harmonized melody with no octave doubling.  The left hand is not simplified as much (having already simplified the secondo a great deal), and even includes some bass notes in the lower octave.  The chords on the third beats are sometimes brought a bit lower, especially if the bass notes are lower, and the rolled chords at the end are omitted.
0:14 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated.
0:30 [m. 13]--Part 2.  The pattern with the lower melody is continued for the contrasting phrase in D-flat.  The left hand continues to play some bass notes in the lower octave, but the chords are still simplified and the rolled chord at the end is absent.  The melody note at the end is still held over the bar line.
0:40 [m. 21]--In the final phrase returning to B-flat, the bass notes remain in the higher octave.  The melody continues at the lower pitch after the second note held over a bar line.  One rolled chord before the final patterns at the cadence is retained.  The left hand leads into the repeat.
0:53 [m. 13]--Part 2 repeated.  Reprise of phrase in D-flat major from 0:30.
1:04 [m. 21]--Reprise of final phrase and motion back to B-flat from 0:40.  The final B-flat is the same as in both other versions.
1:20--END OF WALTZ [30 mm.]


No. 9 in D MINOR.

DUET VERSION
0:00 [m. 1]--Part 1.  The entire waltz is built from downward leaps from weak beats to strong beats.  It therefore logically begins with an upbeat.  In part 1, the primo right hand plays these descending leaps, whose distances are as small as a fourth and as large as a narrow (diminished) seventh.  The left hand only joins at the very end of the part for the brief motion to and half-close in G minor.  The secondo establishes a pattern of a bass note on the first beat of each bar, a right-hand chord on the second, and a rest on the third.  This pattern is slightly broken at the cadence.  The character is quite melancholy and expressive.
0:14 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated.
0:29 [m. 9]--Part 2.  The primo now plays the downward leaps in octaves split between the hands, and they reach much higher.  This first contrasting phrase moves to a major key, E-flat, then back home to D minor.  The secondo continues its pattern in the first half of the phrase, then adds a second bass note, an octave above the first, on the third beat of each bar, the octaves being separated by right-hand chords.  There is a slight intensification at the end of the phrase as it moves back to D minor.
0:42 [m. 17]--A sudden return to a very quiet level begins the last phrase (which is not a return to the Part 1 material, but is entirely new).  The left hand of the primo now echoes the right with the leaps two octaves lower, the two hands dovetailing each other.  In the right hand, an octave is added below the first “leaping” note, and in the left, a harmony (a sixth) is added either above or below the imitating note.  The exact imitation is broken in the second half of the phrase, where unstable harmonies lead to a very weak half-close.  The secondo resumes its Part 1 pattern, without the third-beat notes until the penultimate bar.
0:57 [m. 9]--Part 2 repeated.  Reprise of first contrasting phrase with its intensification from 0:29.
1:11 [m. 17]--Reprise of closing phrase from 0:42.  This time, the second half is altered, both to preserve the imitation and to change the harmonies for a more stable close.  It is still a half-close, and this waltz does not reach a full conclusion on a D minor chord.  It merges quite naturally into the next waltz (No. 10).
1:31--END OF WALTZ [24 mm.]

SOLO VERSION
NOTE: In this recording, Nos. 9-16 are grouped on a single track, as were Nos. 1-8.
0:00 [m. 1]--Part 1.  The primo is transferred exactly to the right hand, which is natural since almost all of the primo in this part was only played by one hand.  The secondo is also exactly replicated in the left hand, with the second-beat chord approached by leap rather than played by the right hand.  In the last bar before the cadence, two low octave doublings are removed.
0:17 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated.
0:32 [m. 9]--Part 2.  The upper octave heard in the primo is not retained, and the right hand continues to play in the single octave.  The left hand also does not duplicate the upper octave bass note on the third beat of each measure heard in the secondo.  The first two second-beat chords are slightly more spread out than in the duet secondo.  Motion to E-flat major and back to D minor with slight intensification.
0:46 [m. 17]--In the quiet final phrase, the imitative echoes heard in the primo left hand are split between the right and left hands.  The right hand and left hand add these echoes to their duplication of the remainder of the primo and secondo parts.  In these “echoes,” the octaves and sixth harmonies are removed.  The left hand must remove a couple of lower notes from the secondo chords and bass octaves to accommodate the bottom notes of the “echoes.”  The exact imitation is still broken in the second half, but the “echoes” are rewritten there to be somewhat more narrow.  Unstable harmonies lead to a half-close.
1:02 [m. 9]--Part 2 repeated.  Reprise of first contrasting phrase with its intensification from 0:32.
1:16 [m. 17]--Reprise of closing phrase from 0:46.  The alteration in the second half remains close to the duet version, with some of the highest primo notes removed from the right hand and some of the lowest secondo notes removed from the left.  The final chord in a full D-minor close is avoided.
1:36--END OF WALTZ [24 mm.]

EASY PIANO VERSION
NOTE: The first part of the waltz is on the same track as #8.
1:21 [m. 1]--Part 1.  The right hand is unchanged.  The left hand is simplified, with the low bass notes raised an octave and some of the second-beat chords simplified to accommodate this.
1:31 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated.
1:42 [m. 9]--(Continues onto the next track after 1:44).  Part 2.  In this contrasting phrase, the right hand remains unaltered, and the left hand continues with the higher bass notes and thinner second-beat chords.  Motion to E-flat major and back to D minor with slight intensification.
0:08 [m. 17]--In the final phrase, not much is changed, as the imitative “echoes” must be retained.  Two low bass notes are raised an octave and a couple of chords under the “echoes” are thinned out.  Unstable harmonies lead to a half-close.
0:20 [m. 9]--Part 2 repeated.  Reprise of first contrasting phrase with its intensification.
0:28 [m. 17]--Reprise of closing phrase.  The alteration in the second half again simply thins out the left hand somewhat.  Full close in D minor is avoided.
0:44--END OF WALTZ [24 mm.]


No. 10 in G MAJOR.

DUET VERSION
0:00 [m. 1]--Part 1.  The harmony begins on D, the “dominant” of the home key of G, not settling on G until the end of the phrase.  This helps to transition from the half-close in D minor at the end of No. 9, and only a very small break between these two waltzes should exist in performance.  The primo plays a scherzo-like running line in thirds split between the hands.  The second half of the phrase has arching arpeggios with light, detached notes in the left hand.  The secondo establishes a waltz rhythm with bass notes and off-beat chords, the second half adding a lower octave leap on the third beats.
0:06 [m. 9]--Part 1 repeated (written out).  The last arpeggio in the primo is somewhat arrested to lead into Part 2.
0:12 [m. 17]--Part 2.  Return to the running thirds in the primo, with some fourths at the beginning and sixths at the cadence.  They move from B major to B minor back to G major for a decorated incomplete close.  The secondo left hand plays octaves on first and third beats in the first half with right hand chords on the second beats.  The second half returns to the opening pattern.
0:18 [m. 25]--Part 2 repeated (written out).  The final cadence is altered so that it is complete.
0:26--END OF WALTZ [32 mm.]

SOLO VERSION
1:37 [m. 1]--The entirety of the primo is transferred to the right hand, which makes the execution (particularly the thirds) quite difficult at the quick tempo usually taken.  The left hand retains all of the secondo except for the lower octave leaps in the second half.
1:44 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated.  It is not written out.  Slight arresting of motion in the last arpeggio to lead into Part 2.
1:51 [m. 9]--Part 2.  All of the primo is retained in the right hand and all of the secondo is retained in the left except for one reduction of a second-beat octave to a fourth in the fourth bar.  The right hand adds a rolled chord to the incomplete close. 
1:58 [m. 9]--Part 2 repeated.  It is not written out.  Change to a complete close.
2:08--END OF WALTZ [16 mm.]

EASY PIANO VERSION
0:00 [m. 1]--The low bass notes of the left hand on the first beats are raised an octave.  In the second half, the accompanying notes are removed from the right hand and partially transferred to the left, which can handle them because of the higher bass notes.
0:06 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated.  Arresting of motion, as in the other versions.
0:13 [m. 9]--Part 2.  The lower octaves are removed from the left hand.  This allows the left hand to assist the right with the somewhat difficult sixths at the cadence.  The rolled chord is removed from the incomplete close.
0:21 [m. 9]--Part 2 repeated.  Complete close.
0:30--END OF WALTZ [16 mm.]


No. 11 in B MINOR.

DUET VERSION
0:00 [m. 1]--Part 1.  As with No. 4 and No. 14, this waltz has the distinct flavor of the composer’s Hungarian Dances.  Part 1 is, at 16 measures, the longest opening section in the set.  The most distinctive element is the opening grace note in the primo, which is heard every two bars.  The first two phrases are played in harmony, usually thirds, between the hands.  The second phrase is set higher than the first and moves to the key of F-sharp minor.  The remaining two phrases have a more static left hand against a generally descending right hand.  The secondo establishes the waltz rhythm with low downbeat bass notes or octaves and groups of two off-beat, often repeated chords.  The bass notes march steadily downward in the second half.  Part 1 ends with a full F-sharp minor cadence.
0:13 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated.
0:27 [m. 17]--Part 2.  The contrasting passage is only eight bars.  It begins with the opening grace-note gesture, turns to major, then spins itself out with a winding phrase over a slight crescendo that leads back home to B.  The primo left hand moves down chromatically, by half-steps.  The bass notes of the secondo play an alternating octave on F-sharp, creating an anticipatory “pedal point.”
0:35 [m. 25]--With a dramatic rolled chord in both parts, the material of Part 1 returns, not in B minor, but in B major, where the waltz will end.  The second phrase seems to want to change keys again, to C-sharp minor, but the last two phrases, which move very steadily downward and hold notes across bar lines, firmly establish the home major key, and Part 2 ends very gently and sweetly.
0:49 [m. 17]--Part 2 repeated.  Reprise of contrasting passage with pedal point and crescendo from 0:27.
0:57 [m. 25]--Reprise of major-key return with notes held across bar lines and gentle closing from 0:35.
1:17--END OF WALTZ [40 mm.]

SOLO VERSION
2:09 [m. 1]--Part 1.  In the first two phrases, the right hand duplicates the primo exactly, playing the many thirds with one hand.  In the second half, the harmony and voicing is slightly thinned and re-arranged.  The left hand removes some octaves from the downbeat bass notes of the secondo, lower ones in the first phrase and upper octaves in the third and fourth phrases.
2:29 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated.
2:49 [m. 17]--Part 2.  Again, the primo is duplicated exactly in the right hand for the contrasting passage.  In the left hand, the F-sharp “pedal point” is played only on the higher bass note instead of an alternating octave.  The off-beat chords in the second phrase are rolled, which was not the case in the duet version.
2:58 [m. 25]--In the major-key return, the right hand continues to duplicate the primo exactly until the end.  The left hand nearly plays all of the secondo, including the initial rolled chord.  Low octaves are removed from the first phrase, and the final off-beat chord is repeated to lead into the reprise of Part 2, which was not the case in the duet version.  Gentle, sweet closing with notes held across bar lines.
3:17 [m. 17]--Part 2 repeated.  Reprise of contrasting passage with pedal point and crescendo from 2:49.
3:26 [m. 25]--Reprise of major-key return with notes held across bar lines and gentle closing from 2:58.
3:49--END OF WALTZ [40 mm.]

EASY PIANO VERSION
0:00 [m. 1]--Part 1.  Other than the very minor alteration of the lower harmonies being removed from the grace notes and thinner harmonies during the cadence, the right hand is unaltered.  The left hand moves the bass notes up an octave in the last three phrases and also thins the harmonies at the cadence.
0:16 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated.
0:33 [m. 17]--Part 2.  In the contrasting passage, lower harmonies are removed from grace notes, but the right hand is otherwise unaltered.  The left hand raises the F-sharp “pedal” point up an octave in the second phrase.  This brings it up an octave from the duet version’s higher octave in the alternation.  The off-beat chords in this second phrase are not rolled, and they are somewhat simplified.
0:40 [m. 25]--In the major-key return, the opening rolled chord is removed from the left hand and made less wide (and less awkward) in the right.  The right hand proceeds unaltered except for the removals of grace-note harmonies until the final cadence, where lower harmonies are removed.  The left hand begins without altering very much, but at the end of the first half and through the second half, the bass notes are moved up an octave.  The off-beat chords are also simplified in the second half, and the final chord is not repeated (following the duet version instead of the “main” solo version).  The notes held across bar lines through the gentle closing are retained.
0:56 [m. 17]--Part 2 repeated.  Reprise of contrasting passage with pedal point and crescendo from 0:33.
1:04 [m. 25]--Reprise of major-key return with notes held across bar lines and gentle closing from 0:40.
1:23--END OF WALTZ [40 mm.]

TWO PIANO VERSION
0:00 [m. 1]--Part 1.  Brahms probably chose this waltz for a two-piano version because there are relatively few alterations between the duet, solo, and easy piano versions.  The major opportunity here is allowing both hands to play the entire primo part an octave apart, which is done by placing a lower-octave doubling of all melody and harmony notes in the left hand of Piano 1.  The opening grace note is replaced by a sweeping upward run.  Piano 2 largely replicates the secondo, but lower octaves are added to the second phrase which are not present in any other version.  Some off-beat chords are thicker.
0:15 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated.
0:31 [m. 17]--Part 2.  In the contrasting passage, Piano 1 abandons the exact lower-octave doubling in the left hand, leaving out the opening grace-note measures in the first phrase.  In the winding crescendo of the second phrase, the harmonies are thickened and the top voice is raised an octave.  Piano 2 retains the alternating octave “pedal point” from the secondo, but also changes a few off-beat chords to voice them slightly higher in the second phrase.  The second phrase also adds yet a third, higher octave to the pedal-point alteration, placing it on the third beats of these last four bars.
0:38 [m. 25]--For the major-key return, the opening rolled chord is very thick.  The lower-octave doubling for the entire melody and harmony returns to Piano 1 for the first two phrases.  In the second half (the last two phrases), a higher octave doubling is added to the gentle descending line with notes held across bar lines, and is retained until the end.  The left hand of Piano 1 plays, surprisingly, the bass, with upper-octave doubling, of not the primo, but the secondo. Piano 2 plays, in its right hand, the original left hand of the primo, wonderfully doubled in an upper octave and adding a descending broken chord to the cadence.  The left hand of Piano 2 plays the off-beat harmonies heard in the right hand of the secondo, but matches their rhythm to that of the descending melody, making them sound richer.  Here, Brahms fully exploits the range of two complete keyboards.
0:53 [m. 17]--Part 2 repeated.  Reprise of contrasting passage with pedal point and crescendo from 0:31.
1:01 [m. 25]--Reprise of major-key return with notes held across bar lines, gentle closing, and full exploitation of two complete keyboards from 0:38.
1:21--END OF WALTZ [40 mm.]


No. 12 in E MAJOR.

DUET VERSION
0:00 [m. 1]--Part 1.  This waltz is extremely expressive and warm.  The main melody is based on harmonized descending and ascending two-note figures beginning on upbeats.  These are spun into a melody that reaches steadily upward, propelled by the upbeats.  In the primo, after the first six bars, as the music moves to B major and gradually swells in volume, a downward turning figure begins in the left hand and is imitated up a fourth in the right.  This sequence is repeated a step higher, the lower voice moving to the middle.  The upper voice harmonizes the turn figure, up yet another fourth, before the very high closing.  The secondo plays three rising octave E’s for each of the first four bars, then takes over the two-note figures in octaves for the remainder.  The lead-in to the repeat (or to Part 2) descends and is passed between the primo left hand and the secondo right hand.  Part 1 is 12 bars, two phrases of four and eight bars.
0:23 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated.  The lead-in suddenly moves to the minor key.
0:45 [m. 13]--Part 2.  The contrasting passage consists of two very subdued phrases.  In the first, the two-note figures are heard in a repeated sequence in E minor, with the secondo playing the three octave E’s.  The second phrase makes an extremely surprising and exquisite motion to F major, a key that is not closely related but is only a half-step higher.  The secondo octaves move down to C’s.  The top voice of the two-note figures does not move and is held over the bar line, leaving the motion to the lower harmonies until a three-note descent ends the phrase.
1:01 [m. 21]--The final 12-bar passage is similar to Part 1 in structure, but the harmonies are completely different.  The first four-bar phrase slips back into E major with the harmonized two-note figures, the secondo octaves moving down still one more step, to B’s.  The final eight-bar phrase initially seems to change keys again, to A major, only turning back to E at the very end.  The turn figure is passed from left hand to right a fourth higher, as before, but its continuation does not repeat the pattern.  Instead, the turn figure stays in the top voice, moving up a fourth before one more statement a step higher moves to the middle voice.  The high, warm, rich, and full closing occurs over a joyous crescendo.  The secondo again takes the two-note figures in octaves at the same point before harmonizing in the final cadence.
1:25 [m. 13]--Part 2 repeated.  Reprise of subdued contrasting passage in E minor and F major from 0:45.
1:41 [m. 21]--Reprise of final passage similar to Part 1 and ending with a joyous cadence from 1:01. 
2:08--END OF WALTZ [32 mm.]

SOLO VERSION
3:50 [m. 1]--Part 1.  This waltz contains the most exact duplications between solo and duet versions.  The entire primo part is transferred to the right hand and the entire secondo part is transferred to the left, neither with any alterations.  This requires the right hand to voice the chords and the moving parts carefully, while the left hand must cover a very wide range for the three rising octave E’s in each of the first four bars.
4:17 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated.  The lead-in moves to the minor key.
4:43 [m. 13]--Part 2.  In the subdued contrasting passage in E minor and F major, the right and left hands continue to transfer the entire primo and secondo parts with no changes.
5:01 [m. 21]--For the final passage similar in structure to Part 1, the right hand again transfers the entire primo part with no changes.  The left hand continues to duplicate the secondo’s octaves until the final cadence, where the harmony is thinned out, as the original cannot be played with one hand.  
5:29 [m. 13]--Part 2 repeated.  Reprise of subdued contrasting passage in E minor and F major from 4:43.
5:48 [m. 21]--Reprise of final passage similar to Part 1 and ending with a joyous cadence from 5:01.
6:17--END OF WALTZ [32 mm.]

EASY PIANO VERSION
0:00 [m. 1]--Part 1.  Virtually nothing is changed in the right hand other than one lower held note being split into two repeated notes.  This makes the transfers from duet to solo to easy piano essentially intact.  In the left hand, the lowest octave E is removed in the first four bars, and the upper two are played on the first two beats, with a rest on the third beat.  The remainder of the left hand with the two-note figures in octaves is unaltered.  The pianist in the recording plays at an unusually quick speed.
0:14 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated.
0:30 [m. 13]--Part 2. The right hand is unaltered in the subdued contrasting phrase in E minor and F major, and the left hand continues to remove the lowest octave from the groups of three, leaving a rest on the third beats of the bars.
0:42 [m. 21]--In the final passage, the right hand remains mostly unchanged.  Three notes in the lowest voice at the beginning of the second (longer) phrase are removed.  These are transferred to the left hand, which removes its lowest octave from the first two of the two-note figures.  Before this spot, the lowest of the three octave B’s is removed in the first phrase.  After this spot, the two-note octave figures are unaltered, as are the harmonies at the end.
0:57 [m. 13]--Part 2 repeated.  Reprise of subdued contrasting passage in E minor and F major from 0:30.
1:09 [m. 21]--Reprise of final passage similar to Part 1 and ending with a joyous cadence from 0:42.
1:24--END OF WALTZ [32 mm.]



No. 13 in C MAJOR (B MAJOR in solo version).

DUET VERSION
0:00 [m. 1]--Part 1.  There are two four-bar phrases, each containing a pair of two-bar units.  The first of these units consists of two forceful, decorated, upward sweeping gestures in both parts.  The second unit closes the phrase with emphatic, detached chords and octaves, the secondo moving twice as slowly as the primo and containing low, punctuating octaves in its left hand.  The second phrase moves higher than the first after the initial forceful upward gesture, closing in G major with an ornamented cadence.
0:11 [m. 9]--Part 1 repeated.  In the duet version, the repeat is written out.
0:21 [m. 17]--Part 2.  Two more four-bar phrases with similar structures to Part 1.  The first moves down from G major to E-flat major.  The second continues the downward harmonic pattern, moving from E-flat to the home key of C major, but the music is set in a higher register, closing with an emphatic cadence.  At the end of the first phrase, as the music moves to E-flat, the secondo bass has a distinctive three-note downward leaping descent.
0:32 [m. 25]--Part 2 repeated.  In the duet version, the repeat is written out.
0:44--END OF WALTZ [32 mm.]

SOLO VERSION
6:18 [m. 1]--Part 1.  Brahms sets the last four waltzes in keys a half-step lower than in the duet versions, beginning with this one.  The keys of the solo versions are somewhat more “difficult.”  His reasoning is unclear, but B major is more closely related to the E major of No. 12 than is C major.  The sweeping gestures actually sound more fully harmonized than in the duet version.  The right hand removes three harmonies from the emphatic, detached octaves in the first phrase.  The left hand leaps between lower octaves and the detached chords, rolling one of them at each cadence.  The closing key is F-sharp major.
6:28 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated, marked with repeat signs.  The repeat is not written out a second time.
6:37 [m. 9]--Part 2.  As in the duet version, the two phrases are very similar to those of Part 1.  The three-note downward leaping descent heard at the end of the first phrase is removed, as the left hand plays the chords that are in the secondo right hand at that point.  At the end of the second phrase, the left hand has wide leaps and rolled chords.  The first phrase moves to D major, the second back to B major.
6:47 [m. 9]--Part 2 repeated.  It is not written out, and instead uses repeat signs, as usual.
6:57--END OF WALTZ [16 mm.]

EASY PIANO VERSION
0:00 [m. 1]--The easy piano version is set in the C-major key of the duet version.  Other than key, the major changes are the re-arranging and thinning of some harmonies, including the second rolled chord, and the transposing upward of the four lowest bass octaves.
0:09 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated, marked with repeat signs and not written out.
0:19 [m. 9]--Part 2.  Again, the harmonies are thinned and re-arranged.  The three lowest bass octaves are transposed upward.  Most of the changes are to minimize the large leaps in the left hand.  One rolled chord is retained at the cadence.
0:28 [m. 9]--Part 2 repeated, marked with repeat signs and not written out.
0:39--END OF WALTZ [16 mm.]


No. 14 in A MINOR (Duet and Easy Piano Versions) / G-SHARP MINOR (Solo and Two-Piano Versions)

DUET VERSION
0:00 [m. 1]--Part 1.  With its driving rhythm, grace notes, and strong emphasis of the second beat of the bar, the piece seems less a waltz than a Hungarian czárdás.  There are three four-bar phrases moving down in key from A minor to G minor to F major.  The primo is harmonized in thirds and sixths between the hands in the first phrase.  A third voice joins the harmony for the second and third phrases.  The secondo establishes the driving rhythm with an arch-like bass pattern and off-beat repeated notes that only slowly change every three or two bars.  The third phrase emphasizes the second beat with very prominent primo rests there.
0:11 [m. 13]--Part 1 varied.  Brahms varies the first part by placing the full harmony in both hands and doubling the entire texture up an octave.  For the first phrase, both hands play the third and sixth harmony.  For the second, the left hand takes the lower two notes and the right hand plays an octave doubling above of the top note.  In the third phrase, the hands are again exactly doubled at the octave, with the expense of most notes from the lowest previous voice being left out.  The secondo is unchanged in the varied repeat.
0:22 [m. 25]--Part 2.  The contrasting section also consists of three four-bar phrases.  The first begins with a return to A minor with the same czárdás character.  The music quickly moves to the surprising key of D-flat.  The second phrase hovers on that key in short groups that build tension.  The third phrase moves back to A minor over a huge crescendo, culminating in a large arching scale in triplet rhythm that is doubled in octaves and leads back to the return of the main material.  The primo plays in a two-voice harmony throughout, and the secondo continues its pattern of a wide arching bass and off-beat repeated notes.  These off-beat notes change to chords with a static bass in the second phrase.  The secondo is somewhat arrested with punching chords and rests at the climax.
0:34 [m. 37]--Return of the opening material.  It is the same as the varied repeat from 0:11 until the end of the second phrase, where a very artful alteration leads the music from G minor back up to the home key of A minor rather than down to F major.  The third phrase is fully and richly harmonized as it approaches its strong and unapologetically minor-key close.  The secondo retains its essential character throughout.
0:45 [m. 25]--Part 2 repeated.  Reprise of contrasting section from 0:22.
0:57 [m. 37]--Reprise of varied opening material and fully harmonized conclusion from 0:34.
1:12--END OF WALTZ [48 mm.]

SOLO VERSION
6:58 [m. 1]--Part 1.  As in No. 13, the key is a half-step lower, giving the waltz a somewhat more ominous color than the duet version since G-sharp minor has a “darker” character than does A minor.  The right hand retains all of the two-note harmonies of the first phrase and most of the three-voice harmony from the second and third phrases.  The left hand is very different from the secondo, reducing the material of necessity.  The arching bass and thumping, slowly-changing repeated notes are combined in a detached and extremely wide-ranging line with treacherous leaps that are difficult to execute at this fast tempo.  The second and third phrases move to F-sharp minor and E major.
7:12 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated.  The solo version is simply marked with repeat signs and is not varied by the upper octave doubling used in the duet version.
7:26 [m. 13]--Part 2.  In the contrasting section, the right hand again replicates most of the primo’s harmonies and the left hand continues its wide-ranging line with treacherous leaps.  In the second phrase, this line is supplanted by more static, oscillating chords.  The motion at the end of the first phrase is to C major.  In the third phrase, at the approach to the climax, the left hand begins to play heavily accented octaves.  The climax is a particularly artful change from the duet version.  The right hand cannot really execute the octave doubling on the huge arching scale in triplet rhythm, so compensating for this, it instead plays a much faster, almost non-metered scale without doubling that reaches down an octave lower than the top line in the duet version.  The left hand plays a huge rolled chord at the climax.
7:40 [m. 25]--For the return of the opening material, the first phrase moves up to a higher octave.  The second phrase moves back down, however, differing from the duet version and reflecting the solo version‘s lack of a varied Part 1 repeat.  The alteration at the end is similar to the duet version, with the full harmonization of the last phrase and strong minor-key ending.  The left hand again plays its wide-ranging, treacherous line, adding accented octaves in the last phrase, with a rolled octave and chord in the last bar.
7:54 [m. 13]--Part 2 repeated.  Reprise of contrasting section from 7:26.
8:08 [m. 25]--Reprise of varied opening material and fully harmonized conclusion from 7:40.
8:27--END OF WALTZ [36 mm.]

EASY PIANO VERSION
0:00 [m. 1]--Part 1.  The easy piano version is set in the “easier” key of the duet version, A minor.  The right hand uses the two-note harmonies of the first phrase, but unlike the main solo version, abandons the three-voice harmony from the second and third phrases, reducing it to the most essential two voices.  The left hand is greatly simplified, with more repeated notes and a far less wide-ranging line.  If the main solo version preserves the bass pattern of the duet version, the easy version preserves more of the thumping repeated notes.
0:14 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated without variation.
0:28 [m. 13]--Part 2.  Up until the climax, the right hand is the same as the “main” solo version in the contrasting section.  The left hand retains the simplified line with more repeated notes and a narrower range.  The static, oscillating chords in the second phrase are almost the same, with some leaps down to bass notes omitted.  Approaching the climax, the heavily accented notes are only in the upper octave.  The climax is more complex than the duet version, but simpler than the “main” solo version.  There is no doubling, and the triplet rhythm is replaced by faster notes, but they are slower than in the “main” version and more metered.  The motion is to the same low note, but since the scale gets to the bottom later, it only moves halfway back up, which means that the return of the opening must begin in the lower octave.  The left hand chord at the climax is much thinner, and the octave that precedes it is higher.
0:43 [m. 25]--The return of the opening material is very similar to Part 1 and remains in the lower octave throughout.  The alteration at the end has much thinner harmonies.  The accented left-hand notes in the third phrase are also higher, without octave doubling, and there is no rolled chord or octave in the last bar.
0:57 [m. 13]--Part 2 repeated.  Reprise of contrasting section from 0:28.
1:12 [m. 25]--Reprise of varied opening material and harmonized conclusion from 0:43.
1:31--END OF WALTZ [36 mm.]

TWO PIANO VERSION
0:00 [m. 1]--Part 1.  The two-piano version combines elements of all three other versions and adds still more.  The key is the more “difficult” G-sharp minor of the main solo version.  The right hand of Piano 1 plays essentially the same part as in the right hand of the main solo version.  The left hand of Piano 1, however, plays not the treacherous wide-ranging line, but one almost directly lifted from the easy piano version with the emphasis on repeated notes.  Piano 2 compensates for this by playing the full arching bass from the duet secondo in its left hand.  The right hand of Piano 2 is a completely new element, using repeated notes in a manner similar to the left hand of Piano 1, but in a high treble register.
0:10 [m. 13]--Part 1 varied.  The right hand of Piano 1 moves to the higher octave, similar to the right hand of the primo in the duet’s varied repeat.  The left hand of Piano 1 now plays the arching bass, taking over from Piano 2.  The right hand of Piano 2 plays rich a rich harmonization of the main material an octave lower than the right hand of Piano 1.  It is similar to the left hand of the secondo, but adds more harmonies and voices.  The left hand of Piano 2 takes over the thumping repeated-note line from Piano 1.
0:21 [m. 25]--Part 2.  In the contrasting section, Piano 1 plays what is essentially an expanded version of the music from the primo of the duet version and the right hand of the solo versions.  The two voices are expanded to four or even five in some spots, through doubling in the first phrase and harmonies in contrary motion thereafter.  Piano 2 essentially plays the secondo from the duet version here, with some chords being expanded, particularly in the second phrase and at the climax, where they can reach into the treble range without interfering with the huge run, which is not true in any other version.  Approaching the climax, Piano 1 plays thicker chords than those of the primo from the duet version.  The climax itself is grander than in any other version.  The scale is replaced by a mixture of steps and skips, and it reaches down into the bass of Piano 1, something not possible in the other versions.  It arches all the way up to its origin point.
0:34 [m. 37]--The return of the opening material rearranges things yet again.  Piano 1 is very similar to the duet primo here, but even more doubling is added since Piano 1 can avail itself of the middle range.  There are five voices in the first phrase and six in the second.  The alteration at the end is very richly harmonized.  Piano 2 is similar to the secondo, but instead of the right hand playing merely off-beat repeated notes, they are thumped through the entire bar, often doubled with higher octaves.  In the final phrase with the alteration, the right hand moves to off-beat chords, as in the secondo, but they are much more full and reach into the treble register of the piano.
0:46 [m. 25]--Part 2 repeated.  Reprise of contrasting section from 0:21.
0:59 [m. 37]--Reprise of varied opening and fully harmonized conclusion from 0:34.  The last bar is altered, replacing the final downward motion in dotted rhythm with a large chord utilizing the full range of both pianos.  This is the only version in which the ending is changed for the repeat.
1:15--END OF WALTZ [48 mm.]


No. 15 in A MAJOR (Duet and Easy Piano Versions) / A-FLAT MAJOR (Solo and Two-Piano Versions)

DUET VERSION
0:00 [m. 1]--Part 1.  The melody of this most famous waltz is presented by the primo in harmony.  The basic rhythm is a long note followed by three short ones.  The long note typically leaps down to two repeated shorter notes.  The third short note will be an upward leap, usually back to the first long note or a close neighbor.  There are also bars in “straight” rhythm, often with a distinctive decoration.  The melody of Part 1 ends on a half-close.  The secondo establishes the waltz rhythm with low bass notes on the downbeats and chords (often inversions of the same chord) on second and third beats.  The first four bars have a “pedal point” bass note on A.  The second half is more active, with bass octaves on both the first and third beats.
0:17 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated.
0:32 [m. 9]--Part 2.  A different lead-in from the one moving to the repeat takes us to the brief six-bar contrasting phrase.  This phrase intensifies, moving steadily upward, and using the basic rhythm except for the last bar, which settles into the reprise.  The secondo retains its basic pattern, but the low bass notes on the first and third beats now leap up an octave between them.
0:46 [m. 15]--The reprise of the opening material is the same as Part 1 except for the last two bars, which are changed to create an extremely satisfying full cadence in the home key.
1:03 [m. 23]--Varied repeat of Part 2.  The contrasting phrase from 0:32 [m. 9] is written out, but unchanged except for a slight alteration of the lead-in.
1:18 [m. 29]--The final return of the opening material is given an extremely effective alteration.  The harmony and melody retain their character, but the basic rhythm is replaced by flowing triplets that soar upward in sonorous sixths.  These triplets propel the melody an octave higher, where the full cadence in A major ends the waltz.  The secondo is unchanged from 0:46 [m. 15].
1:46--END OF WALTZ [36 mm.]

SOLO VERSION
8:28 [m. 1]--Part 1.  The key of A-flat major lends the waltz a somewhat “warmer” character than the A major of the duet version, perhaps a bit less bright.  Other than the key change, virtually all of the highly harmonized primo is transferred to the right hand.  The secondo is somewhat altered in the left hand.  The off-beat chords are rolled and actually more full than in the duet version.  The pedal A (now A-flat) in the first four bars alternates between higher and lower octaves.  The lower octaves must be removed from the bass notes in the second half.  The rolled chords incorporate the bass notes on the third beats of bars.
8:44 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated.
9:00 [m. 9]--Part 2.  In the contrasting phrase, the entirety of the richly harmonized primo continues to be played by the right hand, which must grasp wide chords with as many as five notes.  The left hand also retains most of the secondo, and only half of the lower octaves are removed from the bass notes.  The leaping octaves are obscured, however.  The off-beat chords are not rolled in this phrase.
9:13 [m. 15]--The return of the opening is the same as Part 1 until the last two bars.  Some of the harmonies at the cadence are very slightly different from the duet version.
9:28 [m. 23]--Part 2 varied.  Except for the lead-in, the contrasting phrase from 9:00 [m. 9] is written out, but unaltered.
9:40 [m. 29]--In the varied return of the opening, the left hand is very slightly altered from 9:13 [m. 15], unlike the secondo in the duet version.  The chords are mostly no longer rolled, and some top notes are removed to accommodate the lower reaches of the right hand.  The right hand alone takes the flowing sixths in triplet rhythm, which is quite awkward in comparison to the primo, where they were split between the hands.  This necessitates the removal of some of the lower harmony in the two punctuating “straight” bars (the fourth and seventh bars of the phrase) which were played by the primo left hand under the high reaches of the triplets.  The melody still reaches an octave higher than before, as in the duet version.
9:58--END OF WALTZ [36 mm.]

EASY PIANO VERSION
0:00 [m. 1]--Part 1.  The key is the A major of the duet version.  The harmonies are thinner in both the right and left hands.  Both play only two simultaneous notes throughout, whereas in the “main” solo version, both hands often played three-note chords.  All of the bass notes are raised an octave except for the first and third, which had been played as high alternations in the solo version.  Despite being only two notes, most of the left hand chords are still rolled.
0:14 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated.
0:27 [m. 9]--Part 2.  In the contrasting phrase, the harmonies are again simplified in both hands.  The right hand is restricted to three-note chords (with one four-note chord) where the solo version had often required right-hand chords with as many as five notes.  The left hand chords are restricted mostly to two notes with three three-note chords in the penultimate and final measures.  All of the lower octaves are removed instead of only half.
0:39 [m. 15]--The return of the opening is the same as Part 1 until the last two bars.  The full cadence is created as in the other versions, but the right-hand chords are still restricted to two notes, even the final chord, and the bass notes are still raised an octave.
0:52 [m. 23]--Part 2 varied.  Other than the left hand of the lead-in, which is lower and harmonized differently, the contrasting phrase from 0:27 [m. 9] is written out, but unaltered.
1:04 [m. 29]--In the varied return of the opening, Brahms allows the left hand to reclaim some of what was lost from the main solo version.  Some lower bass notes not heard in Part 1 or at 0:39 [m. 15] are played, and three-note chords with lower bottom notes are heard in the third and fourth bars from the end.  The right hand greatly simplifies the awkward sixths of the flowing triplet rhythm, reducing them to fourths, thirds, or single notes.  The sixths are played in the first “straight” bar (the fourth of the phrase), which had full chords in the solo version, and the penultimate bar (the other “straight” bar) remains simplified from its presentation in the “main” solo version.  The melody still reaches an octave higher than before.
1:25--END OF WALTZ [36 mm.]

TWO PIANO VERSION
0:00 [m. 1]--Part 1.  The key is A-flat major, as in the main solo version.  Brahms essentially redistributes material and adds new elements, as in the other two-piano versions.  The right hand of Piano 1 is the same as the right hand of the solo version.  The left hand of Piano 1 plays the downbeat bass, with the full lower octaves heard in the duet version.  After the first four bars, the bass is also played on third beats.  Piano 2 takes the off-beat chords, which are now spread across both hands and reach into the piano’s treble register, something not possible in the other versions.  They are rolled, and contain six, five, or even seven notes.
0:18 [m. 1]--Part 1 repeated.
0:35 [m. 9]--Part 2.  In the contrasting phrase, the right hand of Piano 1 continues to play the right hand part from the solo version.  The left hand of Piano 1 plays the bass notes on the first and third beats, as in the duet version.  The leaping octave is retained.  Piano 2 continues to play chords with six or seven notes split between the hands and often rolled, reaching even higher into the piano’s treble register.
0:50 [m. 15]--The return of the opening is the same as Part 1 except for the cadence in the last two bars.  The basic pattern is retained there, with the right hand of Piano 1 playing the same part as the right hand of the solo version.
1:07 [m. 23]--Part 2 varied.  The contrasting phrase from 0:35 [m. 9] is written out, but unaltered, other than a slightly different lead-in with the voicing of the Piano 2 chords.
1:24 [m. 29]--Piano 1 now emulates the duet version instead of the solo version.  The flowing triplet sixths in the varied return of the opening are now split between the hands, and the bars in “straight” rhythm are given full harmony in the left hand.  Piano 2 must now take the bass notes in its left hand, including the lower octave.  The left hand leaps to participate in the off-beat chords, which are mostly rolled and still reach into the treble register, but now contain no more than five notes.  The right hand alone takes the chords in the last four bars, where the left hand also plays bass notes on the third beats.
1:55--END OF WALTZ [36 mm.]
END OF TWO PIANO SET


No. 16 in D MINOR (C-SHARP MINOR in solo version).

DUET VERSION
0:00 [m. 1]--Part 1.  There are two main melodies in counterpoint.  Both are melancholy, and the whole waltz is a kind of “valse triste,” a strangely subdued note on which to end the set.  The first melody is more active and conjunct, moving entirely in steps.  It is heard in octaves from the primo.  The second melody is played by the right hand of the secondo.  It has fewer short notes and contains several wide leaps.  Both melodies feature dotted rhythms (long notes followed by shorter ones), the more active one following the long note with three equal short ones (like the similar main rhythm of #15).  The melodies come together rhythmically at the end as the first part moves toward the related major key of F.  The left hand of the secondo plays supporting, wide-ranging broken chords with very detached notes throughout the waltz.
0:17 [m. 9]--Varied repeat of Part 1.  For the only time in the waltzes, Brahms uses invertible counterpoint, the process of placing two melodies against each other and then reversing their top-to-bottom placement in a second statement.  The melody with longer notes and more jumps now moves to the primo and makes a play for prominence, being played not in two, but in three octaves and reaching much higher.  The melody with shorter notes and no leaps moves to the right hand of the secondo.  The melodies are thus reversed in their placement.  The detached broken-chord accompaniment in the secondo left hand is unchanged.
0:32 [m. 17]--In the second part, the two melodies come closer together by adopting aspects of each other.  The melody with shorter notes moves back to the primo, but adds about four skips to its otherwise entirely stepwise motion.  Again, it is doubled in octaves.  The slower melody with more leaps moves back to the right hand of the secondo in only one octave, but it also includes the three short notes following one long note (in two places) that were typical of the other melody.  Part 2 moves gradually from F major back to D minor, and the slower, leaping melody is given more harmony at the end.  The left hand of the secondo plays the detached, wide-ranging broken chords to the end.
0:50 [m. 17]--Part 2 repeated without inverting the melodies.  Slowing as the final cadence is approached.
1:26 (including run-off time)--END OF WALTZ [24 mm.]
END OF DUET SET

SOLO VERSION
9:59 [m. 1]--Part 1.  In keeping with the keys of the previous waltzes in this version, the waltz is a half-step lower, in C-sharp minor, creating a connection to No. 7 in that key, which is somewhat similar, if less overtly tragic, in character.  The melodies are placed as in the duet version, but the right hand plays both of them, so the upper octave of the faster melody is eliminated.  The left hand duplicates the secondo left hand.  The music moves to the related major key of E.
10:17 [m. 9]--Varied repeat of Part 1.  The parts are inverted, as in the duet version, but the right hand now only plays the skipping, slower melody--in octaves, preserving the prominence of the duet version at this point, but removing the highest of the three octaves.  The faster, stepwise melody is played by the left hand, which must abandon the detached and constant broken chords, supporting the faster melody with rolled chords on the first and third beats of each bar.
10:32 [m. 17]--The faster melody returns to the right hand, but it is now in octaves, as in the duet version.  The slower, leaping melody moves back to the left hand, which continues the pattern of rolled chords on the first and third beats to support the melody, as it had with the faster melody in the varied repeat of Part 1.  The rhythm must be altered, however, specifically in those spots with three short notes following one long note, which are now two long notes followed by two shorter notes.  Some aspects of the detached broken chords return, such as occasional harmonies under the second beat of the bar.  Motion from E major back to C-sharp minor.
10:50 [m. 17]--Part 2 repeated without inverting the melodies.  Slowing as the final cadence is approached.
11:27 (including run-off time)--END OF WALTZ [24 mm.]
END OF SOLO SET

EASY PIANO VERSION
0:00 [m. 1]--Part 1.  The key is the D minor of the duet version.  The main other alteration from the solo version is in the left hand, where the detached broken chords are re-arranged to change direction more often and avoid the lowest notes.  This also facilitates the simplification of the right hand, which still mostly plays both melodies, but passes the lowest notes of the leaping, slower melody to the left hand.  The left hand can play these notes with its simplified, generally higher detached broken chord line.
0:14 [m. 9]--Varied repeat of Part 1.  The right hand only plays the slower, leaping melody in one octave, cutting the lower one.  The left hand retains the rolled chord support of the faster, stepwise melody, with some minor simplifications toward the end.
0:27 [m. 17]--Part 2.  In a very artful simplification, both melodies are played by the right hand with the upper octave cut from the faster, stepwise melody.  The left hand now plays the detached, wide-ranging broken chords, generally up an octave from those in the duet version, but preserving most of the large leaps.  The easy piano version thus preserves most elements from both other versions through selective re-arranging and deployment, and is therefore perhaps the finest of these simplifications.
0:40 [m. 17]--Part 2 repeated without inverting the melodies.  Slowing as the final cadence is approached.
1:10 (including run-off time)--END OF WALTZ [24 mm.]
END OF EASY PIANO SET


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