Recording: Vienna Philharmonic, conducted by Leonard Bernstein; Gerhart Hetzel, violin solo (2nd Movement).  Live performance from 1983 [DG D-125 224]
Published 1877

The extremely long gestation of the First Symphony has almost legendary status.  While some speculation is probably romanticized hyperbole, it is certainly true that Brahms approached the composition of this hallowed genre with extreme respect (as he had similarly done with the string quartet).  Already proclaimed by Schumann as the heir to Beethoven in the 1850s, Brahms knew that his first symphonic effort would be subject to intense scrutiny and high expectations.  Thus, he went through a long process of preparation that included such works as the First Piano Concerto, the two serenades, the German Requiem, the short choral works from the Op. 50s, and the Haydn Variations, all of which sharpened his skills in orchestration.  The piano concerto even started its life as a symphony, and the First Serenade was originally called “Symphony-Serenade.”  When, after more than twenty years as an active composer, Brahms published the First Symphony, it was instantly hailed as a supreme masterpiece.  The key of C minor with an ending in C major drew immediate comparison to Beethoven’s Fifth.  The complexity of the first movement, with its dense web of motives and lack of singable melodies, was balanced by its exciting climax and passionate energy.  Brahms also followed Beethoven in shifting the weight toward the finale, a huge movement with a large double introduction.  The second part of the introduction, with its evocative horn and flute parts, uses a familiar “alphorn” or “London chimes” melody that Brahms had used as a greeting for Clara Schumann.  When the main part of the movement arrives, it is with what might be recognized as the composer’s most inspired theme, the “big tune” that immediately drew comparison to the “joy” theme of Beethoven’s Ninth (whether his comment that “any ass can hear that” was meant as an acknowledgement of the similarity or as an observation about those who made the comparison is still debated).  The ending has genuine and well-planned moments of triumph.  The movement’s form, with a conflated development and recapitulation, has long been a favorite for analysis.  The middle movements also have notable features, such as the nebulous phrase structure of the slow movement, along with the metrical distortions of the middle section and the violin solo at the end.  The solo was an atypical romantic indulgence for the mature Brahms.  The third movement has structural resemblance to a scherzo and trio, but this is no scherzo.  The moderately-paced “scherzo substitute” would set the precedent for the Second and Third symphonies as well.  One innovative aspect of the overall design is the symmetrical progression by thirds (major thirds) between the movements: C, E, A-flat, C, an unusual layout.  The First Symphony is more than a legend and more than one Big Tune.  It is, with respect to Mahler’s “Titan,” the greatest First Symphony ever written, from the pounding timpani of the first movement’s introduction to the blazing C-major chords at the end.   The standard orchestra with four horns and two trumpets adds contrabassoon and, in the last movement, three trombones.

ONLINE SCORE FROM IMSLP (First Edition from Brahms-Institut Lübeck)

ONLINE SCORE FROM IMSLP (from Breitkopf & Härtel Sämtliche Werke):
First Movement
Second Movement
Third Movement
Fourth Movement

1st Movement: Un poco sostenuto - Allegro (Sonata-Allegro form with introduction).  C MINOR, 6/8 time, with one 9/8 bar.
INTRODUCTION - Un poco sostenuto
0:00 [m. 1]--The opening is incredibly powerful and assertive.  Attention is drawn to the pulsating timpani, who steadily play on the home keynote, C.  Against this, the violins and cellos begin with one of the symphony’s main ideas, three ascending notes, each a half-step apart.  The winds and violas play descending chords against this.  The string basses and contrabassoon join with the timpani beats.  An important rhythm, three shorter notes, follows in the ascent.  The violin line is highly syncopated.
0:10 [m. 3]--The syncopation in the violins continues.  The winds begin to play new figures harmonized in thirds.  They are based on a long note followed by three ascending shorter ones.  The violins and cellos begin to work with the rhythm of three shorter notes, often in widely leaping lines.  The music remains strong and assertive, and the timpani continue to beat loudly.  This all approaches a half-cadence with a punctuating trill.  It is prepared by a single drawn-out 9/8 bar inserted into the context of 6/8.
0:37 [m. 9]--After the half-cadence, the music cuts off sharply and moves directly to a series of upbeat figures that begin to sound like they start on strong beats and thus obscure the sense of pulse.  These figures are groups of three repeated notes in the strings, all plucked, and passed between instrument groups.  The winds support the groups with longer syncopated notes that match the changes.  There are two downward leaps, the second a third lower, between the groups.  These figures merge into “sighing” figures with bowed strings.  These are also highly syncopated and include chromatic notes.  They also reach a half-cadence.
0:56 [m. 13]--The plucked groups of repeated notes begin again, this time in F minor and still supported by winds.  The following “sighing” figures are also analogous to the passage just completed, but they are extended by two more bars and begin to build up.  Eventually, they leap an octave at the top of the buildup.  There is then a scale descent in violins, bassoons, and flutes that again recedes.  The scale still suggests F minor, but the following music is back in C minor.
1:33 [m. 21]--The strings begin an ominous anticipation of the widely-spaced Theme 1, which will appear in full in the exposition.  The arpeggios become gradually faster and are the impetus for another strong buildup, both in volume and pitch.  Under the strings, the timpani begin again to pulse, and there is light wind support, but that support does include trumpets along with horns, clarinets, and flutes.  Under the buildup and the increased speed of the arpeggios, the timpani beats are also played twice as quickly.
1:49 [m. 25]--The buildup flowers into an even more powerful statement of the opening music, which now begins on the “dominant” note G instead of C.  Under this statement, the timpani no longer pulsate, but rumble in an extended roll.  The pulsation remains in the string basses and contrabassoon.  This climax continues as had the opening at 0:10 [m. 3], including the wind figures in thirds, but it is sharply cut off before the string elaboration of the short-note rhythm.  The early cutoff allows the same half-cadence as before, since the passage began at a higher level than at the opening.
2:07 [m. 29]--The sharp cutoff isolates an oboe, which plays a melancholy and meandering melody that includes wide leaps, including a leap up an octave to a descending scale.  The oboe line is supported by horns and bassoons, later clarinets, and the quiet level reflects that of the plucked repeated notes following the previous cutoff.  The “meandering melody” dovetails briefly into a flute line before being passed back to the oboe.
2:25 [m. 33]--The oboe line dovetails into an entry of the cellos, who take over the “meandering melody,” including the leap up the octave to the descending scale.  The winds drop out, the clarinets exiting last.  The upper strings provide a quiet background to the cello line.  At the end, a quiet and highly anticipatory half-cadence is approached by an isolated plucked note in the cellos following their completion of the “meandering melody” and a gentle descent from a long-held first violin note.  One more plucked cello note on the “dominant” pitch of G creates a great sense of anticipation for the arrival of the exposition.
2:47 [m. 38]--The exposition begins with a powerful sort of “motto” rather than directly with Theme 1.  A low unison C punched out by timpani, cellos, horns, and winds is followed by music that is highly similar to the opening of the introduction.  Each wind group except bassoons divides so that the top instrument moves up and the bottom one moves down.  Both bassoons move down, along with a pair of unison horns.  The upper line is the rising three-note half-step idea.  It is immediately followed by a quick turning figure that is clearly derived from the faster “short-note” rhythm from the introduction, expanded to include the following downbeat.  At this point, the strings enter, echoing the turning “short-note” rhythm with punctuating brass and a full cadence.
2:53 [m. 42]--Theme 1.  The first violins present the theme, which begins with a rising arpeggio.  It soars above pulsating second violins and violas.  Underneath it, the cellos and bassoons play the “motto,” with the three rising half-steps and the faster turning figure.  The soaring arpeggio is followed by a more detached descent.  The theme begins again a fifth higher, still with the “motto” in the low instruments, but now with wind support.  Instead of moving to the descent, the theme is slightly extended with violin syncopations and a strong half-cadence.  The low instruments play more “turning figures” under this extension (C minor).
3:04 [m. 52]--The strings play two downward leaps beginning on upbeats, the second a third lower.  These are in unison.  They echo the plucked string figures from the introduction at 0:37 [m. 9].  Like those, these are followed by “sighing” gestures with chromatic notes.  The winds join and the strings harmonize on the “sighing” gestures.  The low strings play more downward leaps under them.  They are cut off by decisive and detached notes with timpani beats.
3:12 [m. 58]--More downward leaps and “sighing” gestures echo the F-minor harmony and structure of 0:56 [m. 13] from the introduction.  The “sighing” gestures are extended, as they are there.  They are first played by the low strings, then taken over by the violins and horns.  The violins continue to play the downward leaps over the sighing gestures from the low strings, and the winds with low strings play the downward leaps when the violins take over.  Already loud, the music builds to a feverish full cadence in C minor that is emphatically emphasized with the “short-note” turning figure in the violins along with brass chords.
3:28 [m. 70]--The winds, beginning with clarinets and bassoons, start another tentative statement of Theme 1 that blossoms into a full statement, including the detached descent.  The violins, violas, and timpani play pulsating repetitions that begin to sound like the da-da-da-DUM “fate” rhythm from Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony.  The low strings play an inversion of the “motto,” with the half-steps and turn figures, but their direction is reversed so that the half-steps move down and the turning figures move up.
3:38 [m. 79]--The strings, including low strings, take over and extend the Theme 1 material.  The winds play extended versions of the inverted “motto.”  The brass and timpani now greatly emphasize the “fate” rhythm.  Heavy syncopation, drum rolls, and the forceful detached descent all move to another full cadence.
3:52 [m. 90]--Transition.  The full orchestra follows the cadence with a series of strong syncopations, mostly detached from each other and with the winds and strings staggered.  They culminate in a powerful detached descent in long-short rhythm.  This descending arpeggio greatly diminishes in volume.  The long-short rhythm continues in a series of questioning gestures from strings and winds.   A gentle arching line follows, and the music begins to move toward the related major key of E-flat.
4:13 [m. 105]--The music is now even quieter.  The strings put down their bows and begin to pluck on the long-short rhythm, which is still very detached.  The winds play isolated and quiet chords.  The strings bow again when the winds introduce the “gentle arching line” again.  This is extended and emerges into soft and isolated exchanges between plucked higher strings and short wind chords.  The cellos continue to pulsate.
4:30 [m. 117]--E-flat major has now arrived.  The first violins and cellos begin a murmuring line, over which a solo horn plays a distinctive falling call.  The call is then taken by the woodwinds for a second statement.
4:36 [m. 121]--After a brief break, the murmuring line continues in the second violins and violas.  The first oboe and horn then lead the other winds, who harmonize as they play the three-note half-step figure four times in rising succession.  Under these statements, the cellos play a major-key version of Theme 1’s opening arpeggios.  This is passed to the violins on the third statement, and the low strings move to one inverted (descending) and one original (ascending) three-note half-step figure.  The fourth oboe statement is short, and it settles down with the falling strings to a half-cadence anticipating Theme 2.
4:51 [m. 130]--Theme 2.  It is almost entirely derived from the downward leaps from 3:04 [m. 52] and earlier in the introduction with the plucked repeated notes.  It has now been transformed into a wistful, gentle, albeit highly chromatic melody presented by first oboe.  Under the melody, the violas have started to pulse on repeated notes, and the clarinets, bassoons, and cellos provide additional support (E-flat major). 
5:01 [m. 139]--After two phrases, the clarinets begin to echo the oboe line, which they do twice.  The horns also join at this point, playing upward neighbor-tone gestures while harmonized in thirds.  The oboes then appear to abandon the theme, answering a clarinet imitation with the opening gesture and then a slower, partly syncopated descent that seems to trail off.
5:12 [m. 146]--The violins take over from the oboes and clarinets.  They appear to turn the oboe descent around, but in reality they are playing the three-note half-step figure.  This is immediately answered by a lovely cadence gesture from a clarinet, which is nothing more than the “tail” of the Theme 2 phrases.  The clarinet is answered by a horn, and they pass the gesture back and forth twice.  Finally, the flute and oboe play the cadence gesture together, and they are answered and overlapped ominously by the clarinet and bassoon.  These entries add a descending octave.  Last, the low horns answer the gesture, overlapping clarinet and bassoon.  They reach a very low octave, and the bass harmony below shifts to E-flat minor.
5:33 [m. 157]--Closing Theme.  Two isolated three-note minor-key descents in the violas begin, punctuated by plucked chords from other strings.  Then the rest of the strings take the bows and pass the three-note descents down from violins to violas to cellos, overlapping their entries and creating a pileup effect.  This builds tremendously as the winds creep back in (E-flat minor). 
5:37 [m. 161]--The descent is developed into a powerful melody led by the violins and characterized by its increasingly wide leaps and plunging arpeggios.  The low strings and bassoons have a prominent, somewhat slower counterpoint to the violins that usually moves in the opposite direction.  Other winds add support to the melody’s off-beat accents and syncopation.  The “fate” rhythm is prevalent.
5:46 [m. 169]--The parts are reversed.  The low strings and bassoons now play the faster melody with wide leaps.  The violins in octaves, with support from most woodwinds, play the slower counterpoint, which now takes center stage.  Approaching the climax, the faster melody creeps up to the second violins, who break from their lower octaves with the first violins.
5:56 [m. 177]--In an enormous climax, the first violins begin an extremely syncopated cadence phrase.  The low strings first play “inverted” three-note ascents, then “original” descents.  The horns play blasting calls with strong falling octaves against this.  There are five of these, the last three overlapping.  After a strong cadence in E-flat minor, the winds and strings twice alternate a hammering third beginning on an upbeat.  The strings then reiterate this third three times before descending and pivoting back to the exposition repeat.
6:10 [m. 189, first ending, replacing m. 38]--The pivot back to C minor is accomplished by a rather jarring half-step descent following the hammered thirds.  The first ending has two bars (mm. 189a and 190a, corresponding to mm. 38-39), but the only difference is that all strings play on the initial thumping unison C, coming as they do from their descent.  From that point, the opening “motto” continues as at 2:47.  The repeat sign goes back to m. 40.
6:15 [m. 42]--Theme 1, with rising arpeggios over the “motto,” as at 2:53.
6:26 [m. 52]--Downward leaps on upbeats and “sighing” gestures, as at  3:04.
6:33 [m. 58]--Downward leaps and “sighing” gestures in F minor, then buildup and cadence, as at 3:12.
6:48 [m. 70]--Tentative wind statement of Theme 1 over “fate” rhythm and inversion of “motto,” as at 3:28.
6:58 [m. 79]--Extension of Theme 1 material with inverted “motto,” “fate” rhythm, and cadence, as at 3:38.
7:11 [m. 90]--Transition with syncopation, huge descent, long-short rhythm, and move to E-flat, as at 3:52.
7:31 [m. 105]--Plucked long-short rhythm and isolated string/wind exchanges, as at 4:13.
7:48 [m. 117]--Murmuring string line with falling horn and woodwind calls, as at 4:30.
7:54 [m. 121]--Half-step motives from oboe/horn and major-key version of Theme 1 arpeggios, as at 4:36.
8:09 [m. 130]--Theme 2.  Downward leaps presented by oboe with pulsating violas, as at 4:51.
8:20 [m. 139]--Clarinet echoes, horn gestures, and syncopated descent, as at 5:01.
8:30 [m. 146]--Violin ascent, cadence gestures, large descent with octaves, and motion to minor, as at 5:12.
8:50 [m. 157]--Closing Theme.  Minor-key descents and then overlapping descents, as at 5:33.
8:55 [m. 161]--Powerful melody with wide leaps, plunging arpeggios, and slower counterpoint, as at 5:37.
9:04 [m. 169]--Reversal of parts and approach to climax, as at 5:46.
9:13 [m. 177]--Enormous climax with syncopation, blasting horn calls, and hammering thirds, as at 5:56.
9:27 [m. 189, second ending]--The last descent is a whole step rather than a half-step, causing a motion at the development to B instead of to the C of the exposition.  In B major, the strings elaborate on the opening arpeggio from Theme 1.  This is supported by wind chords and is at full volume.  After eight bars, the familiar descent and half-cadence from Theme 1 is heard, still in B.
9:39 [m. 197]--The strings are suddenly hushed, and the violins begin to play in tremolo.  The violas pulsate.  A solo bassoon plays a slower elaboration of the Theme 1 material in counterpoint with another line in the low strings.  There is a subtle shift from B major to B minor, and the higher winds make an unobtrusive entrance to help mark another half-cadence in B minor.
9:49 [m. 205]--The violins begin the tremolo motion again.  The slow elaboration on Theme 1 is again heard, but it is now flute and oboe, rather than bassoon, who play in counterpoint with the low strings.  The harmony makes an almost imperceptible digression from the previous passage, and the material is extended.  The harmony moves away from B, first seemingly back home to C minor, which is strongly implied by the low-string arpeggios.  At that point, the timpanist enters with “fate” rhythms and rolls.  The music becomes quieter, then makes another harmonic digression down, to B-flat minor.
10:17 [m. 225]--The closing theme makes an unmistakable entry in B-flat minor.  It builds rapidly, as this theme always does.  The isolated three-note descents and their extensions are heard as in the exposition.  The theme seems to continue, but on the third upward leap, it suddenly pauses.  There follows a new, warm, and melodious phrase from the strings in G-flat major (which is not too far distant from B-flat minor).  This phrase seems to expand on the non-melodic detached syncopations from the beginning of the transition at 3:52 and 7:11 [m. 90].  Against this, the horns, then other winds, play the “fate” rhythm.
10:31 [m. 237]--The closing theme again begins in B-flat minor without its opening gestures, and the new melodious G-flat phrase follows, now in the winds.  The strings almost rudely cut the winds off, and through a simple manipulation move the phrase down to A major.  The “fate” rhythms are still heard, now from trumpets as well as horns.  The winds echo the end of the A-major melody, and then the strings take over for yet another statement of the phrase, now in C major.  “Fate” rhythms continue in the horns.
10:49 [m. 253]--The winds pass the opening three chords of the “melodious phrase” to the strings twice.  The winds then seem to begin another alternation, but they isolate the “sighing” figures of the phrase, stating them four times, with the last two a step higher, moving away from C.  The strings join them in harmony on the last two, and the music has again arrived at B-flat minor.  The “fate” rhythm is loudly blasted by the horns under these last two “sigh” figures.
11:00 [m. 261]--The return to B-flat minor has been an illusion.  The closing theme gestures begin again in the strings, at a powerful level, but the contour of the theme immediately places the music back in C minor.  The horns and timpani powerfully state the “fate” rhythm, and the rising half-step motive is heard in the low strings.  The winds then echo the strings with the top voice a third lower.  The strings make another statement a third higher than the first one, and the winds again echo it a third below.  The second low string statement of the rising half-steps remains anchored, moving to the “dominant” note. 
11:09 [m. 269]--The music suddenly quiets down, and the violins make a final effort at the closing theme at a lower level.  Pulsating violas and continuing “fate” rhythms are heard as the music continues to diminish.  The rising half-step motive, so pervasive in the movement, is heard two more times in the low strings, still remaining anchored to the strong motion into the “dominant” note of C minor (G).
11:15 [m. 273]--A long bass pedal on the dominant note G begins.  The cellos pass the “fate” rhythm to the timpani and back, both remaining anchored to the note.  The half-step motive now comes to the forefront.  The violins state it, then invert it, moving gradually down.  They do this a second time, still moving downward.  The inversion follows the second statement as it had the first, but it is stretched out, with a longer second note.  All of these statements are syncopated over bar lines, and winds and violas have downward moving lines in thirds against all of them.
11:27 [m. 282]--The last “stretched out” inversion of the half-step motive turns around on its final note and begins another series of downward-moving statements that follows the same pattern as before: statement, inversion, second statement, stretched-out second inversion.  The winds still have their generally downward-moving thirds, but the violas now join the first violins, the second violins having dropped out.  The cellos and timpani continue to pass the “fate” rhythm, which is still on the note G.  After the last inverted statement, the strings pause, then descend with syncopated notes, stopping just short of the “goal” note, C.  The “fate” rhythm stops, and the music, now very quiet, becomes nearly motionless.
11:44 [m. 294]--Re-transition.  It is of unusual length.  The preparatory “dominant” has already been in the bass “fate rhythm” for a while.  Now, at the moment of greatest quiet and stillness, begins a slow and massive buildup.  Beginning with F-sharp leading into the dominant note G, the three-note rising half-steps are heard in the bass with the first note held over the bar line.  They are followed by a near-repetition that leaps an octave from the second note.  Above this, the violins and violas, with all but first violins in tremolo, follow behind the bass with a variant of the figure that replaces the second half-step with a rising third.  The two bass patterns repeat a half-step higher.  The “fate rhythm” in horns and timpani is heard, and then the three-note descent with turn from the closing theme follows in the clarinets, harmonized in thirds.
11:55 [m. 301]--As the second bass pattern with the leaping octave concludes, the “fate” rhythm is again heard from the horns (now without timpani).  The pattern of alternation between this and the three-note descent with turn continues.  The descent and turn works steadily upward, alternating between oboes and clarinets.  The bass pattern now works upward steadily by half-step, but the three-note rising figure is abandoned after the preceding second statement, and only the figure with the rising octave continues the ascent.  The higher strings with tremolo continue in their pattern, but begin to rise more steadily.  Three alternations between “fate” (in horns) and “descent and turn” (for a total of four, two each in clarinets and oboes, all harmonized in thirds) are heard as the bass rises.  The volume also steadily and inexorably builds.
12:12 [m. 313]--The bass pattern with the rising octave settles on C-sharp moving into D, where it is heard a total of four times.  At this point, the trumpets join the horns on the “fate” rhythm, and the “descent and turn” with which it alternates is now played by flutes and oboes in thirds, the clarinets joining the bassoons with harmony supporting the bass.  When the fourth bass statement on C-sharp and D is reached, after three more alternations, the tension is extreme.  The “fate” rhythm and the “descent and turn” join together for two statements, and the bass moves down by thirds from D, forming a chord on G and re-establishing the “dominant.”  The first violins also break away from their pattern with wider leaps over the tremolo.
12:22 [m. 321]--In a massive upbeat, the timpani join the horns and trumpets on the “fate” rhythm, and they continue to pound it during the ensuing climax, which is the high point of the entire movement.  The thundering “fate” rhythm again stays anchored to the “dominant” note, G.  Above this, the violins begin to play music that incorporates the “quick turns” from the motto.  All winds zigzag downward on the slower “descent and turn,” all of them still harmonized in thirds.  The mood is feverish and extremely intense.
12:32 [m. 328]--The winds now blast out two statements of the harmonized three-note half-step figure.  Under this, the strings collapse into rushing scales out of the “quick turn” rhythm.  The winds retain the characteristic syncopation.  They stall after the second statement on the “dominant” chord, which is blasted four times as the timpanist breaks into feverish rolls.  It seems that Brahms could not anticipate the return more strongly than this, but he has one more surprise in store for this enormous re-transition.
12:41 [m. 335]--In a shocking digression, Brahms drops the bottom out of his transition by moving the bass down to F-sharp, where the ascent began.  Here, the lower strings play the “quick turning” rhythm again, and the violins join the winds for two more statements of the half-step figure.  Trumpets and horns blast two more “fate” gestures.  The harmony actually moves from B minor to D minor, ascending by thirds from the previous G.
12:47 [m. 340]--The border between re-transition and recapitulation is quite nebulous here.  At this point, another half-step figure begins another third higher, on F minor, continuing the previous pattern.  But this statement of the figure develops into the “motto” with the “quick turning” figures.  It is also given great weight by a more slowly descending bass that includes one of only two duple rhythms that straighten out the 6/8 meter in the movement.  The “motto” loses its opening thumped C as well as the first wind descent under the first note, but the F-minor harmony matches the second chord of the exposition’s “motto,” so Brahms simply cuts the first chord, and the recapitulation has begun.  The winds and strings have a near role-reversal from the exposition, and the end of the “motto” is underpinned by a timpani roll.
12:53 [m. 343]--Theme 1, with rising arpeggios over the “motto,” largely as at 2:53 and 6:15 [m. 42], but given more richness by the winds, who join the second violins and violas on their pulsations.
13:04 [m. 353]--Downward leaps on upbeats and “sighing” gestures, as at 3:04 and 6:26 [m. 52], again with richer scoring, the winds joining the leaps and the horns adding weight to the “sighing” figures.
13:11 [m. 359]--Downward leaps and “sighing” gestures in F minor, then buildup and cadence, as at 3:12 and 6:33 [m. 58].  Again, the winds join the leaps, and the horns join the low strings as well as the violins on the “sighing” figures
13:25 [m. 370]--Transition.  The expected cadence is cut off by an unexpected rising half-step.  This leads directly into the huge descending arpeggio in detached long-short rhythm from the transition after 3:52 and 7:11 [m. 90, here analogous to m. 97].  Thus, the entire second statement of Theme 1 with the inverted “motto” and “fate” rhythms has been skipped, as well as transition’s opening syncopations (which became the “melodious phrase” in the development section).  The “questioning” gestures and arching line follow as expected, but of course the displacement allows the music to remain in C rather than moving to E-flat. 
13:37 [m. 378]--Plucked long-short rhythm and isolated string/wind exchanges, as at 4:13 and 7:31 [m. 105].  The scoring is now somewhat lighter than in the exposition.
13:54 [m. 390]--Murmuring low string line with falling horn and woodwind calls, as at 4:30 and 7:48 [m. 117].  It is now in C major instead of E-flat, and violas instead of first violins “murmur” with the cellos.
14:01 [m. 394]--Half-step motives from oboe/horn and major-key version of Theme 1 arpeggios, as at 4:36 and 7:54 [m. 121].  First and second violins, rather than second violins and violas, have the “murmuring” line.
14:17 [m. 403]--Theme 2, as at 4:51 and 8:09 [m. 130], now in C major.  There is minimal rescoring, including the absence of cellos and the redistribution of their line to flute, first bassoon, horn, and isolated violin entries.  The oboe still carries the main melodic line as before.
14:27 [m. 412]--Clarinet echoes and syncopated descent, as at 5:01 and 8:20 [m. 139].  The clarinet/oboe alternation is preserved, but again the cellos are absent, and new lines are heard in violins and flutes.  The horns also have new, call-like material that is different from their gestures at this point in the exposition.
14:38 [m. 419]--Violin ascent, cadence gestures, large descent with octaves, and motion to minor, as at 5:12 and 8:30 [m. 146].  The clarinet and horn alternate on the cadence gestures, as before.  The final three overlapping gestures are rescored.  The first is for oboe and clarinet rather than flute and oboe.  The second is for horns alone rather than clarinet and bassoon, and the last is for bassoons rather than horns.  The music in C here is lower than the exposition’s E-flat, and the bassoons are more suited for the lowest pitch.
14:59 [m. 430]--Closing Theme in C minor.  The minor-key descents with plucked punctuation and then the overlapping descents are scored largely as at 5:33 and 8:50 [m. 157], with added bassoons.
15:04 [m. 434]--Powerful melody with wide leaps, plunging arpeggios, and slower counterpoint, as at 5:37 and 8:55 [m. 161].  Here, there is no major rescoring.
15:13 [m. 442]--The reversal of parts and approach to the climax are analogous to 5:46 and 9:04 [m. 169].
15:22 [m. 450]--The climax in C minor largely follows the scoring and pattern of 5:56 and 9:13 [m. 177], including the blasting horn calls.  Trumpets and timpani now support the strings on the hammering thirds.  The descent after the hammering thirds is narrower than both the first and second endings after the exposition, with two half-steps leading down to B-flat (the first ending had a whole-step and a half-step, the second two whole-steps).
15:36 [m. 462]--The recapitulation is given an extension with more wind/string alternation on hammering thirds echoing the previous music.  These heavily emphasize harmonies suggesting F minor, and are supported by blasting horn chords, trumpets, and timpani.  The hammering gestures start to turn around and work upward by half-steps.  The winds do this while the string responses still descend and become wider.  The same material is then compressed into tighter time frames with the wind and string lines coming together into three-note groups.  They approach a powerful arrival on C, but this is immediately diverted by another hammering third from the whole orchestra that jars everything toward B-flat minor.
15:52 [m. 475]--The strings begin to pluck.  They reiterate the hammering thirds on B-flat and rapidly diminish, the upper instruments slowly dropping out and leaving only cellos.  The horns softly enter on a held third.  The violins then begin to bow the pervasive three rising half-steps.  They veer toward F minor and major before making their way back to C.  The half-step motive blossoms into two genuinely melodic phrases, the second a step higher.  Under them, the cellos continue to gently pluck the third, which shifts up a half-step, then expands to a fourth on C under the second phrase.  Flutes, clarinets, violas, and horns provide syncopated held thirds in support.  Bassoons double the cellos, as they often have in the movement.
16:08 [m. 486]--A long, descending, diminishing violin line completes the melodic statement begun by the phrases based on the half-step motion.  This line reaches a clear cadence in C minor, and is harmonized by second violins, violas, and winds.  The plucked cello line is interesting.  It continues first with the previous fourth based on C.  This fourth is then turned around so that F is on the bottom and it is a fifth.  Then comes another fourth based on G with C on top.  At the end of the phrase, this is also expanded to a fifth based on G, which creates the “dominant” before the cadence.  At the same time, the plucking is smoothed to a straight rhythm (the movement’s second such  instance), which helps bridge to the ensuing slower tempo.
16:27 [m. 495]--At the cadence, there is a large-scale tempo change to “Meno Allegro” (originally marked as the “Poco sostenuto” of the introduction). The “fate” rhythm alternates between horns and timpani.  The cellos hold a low C.  The winds (except flutes), led by the oboes, state the three-note half-step motive and then turn it back down to C, giving it closure.  Overlapping with this turn, the strings, led by violins (who are doubled by flutes), also begin the motive and turn it back to the closing C.  A second oboe statement, the third overall, again overlaps with the turn.  The music is hushed and slower, but still intense.
16:48 [m. 502]--Following the pattern, the strings (without flutes) again overlap the oboe statement to begin a fourth one.  This time, however, the statement stalls.  The second and third notes are both lengthened, and over them, clarinets and bassoons surreptitiously begin to state the opening arpeggios of Theme 1.  The flutes and oboes join them after one bar.  Then the third note of the ascending half-step motive is repeated.  Finally, taking the place of the “closing” turn to C, the strings play the Theme 1 arpeggios.  In an incredible surprise for a movement so persistently in minor, they are played not on C minor, but on C major.  The entire phrase, including the “fate” rhythm in horns and timpani, builds toward the C-major cadence.
17:10 [m. 508]--The “fate” rhythm breaks off, and there is a general pause.  The cadence was strong, but the movement ends quietly.  The winds and timpani softly reiterate the C-major chord and the strings follow.  The winds repeat the chord again, and the strings follow below them, along with a gentle timpani roll.  A plucked C from the strings cuts off the chord and ends the movement.
17:36--END OF MOVEMENT [511 mm.]

2nd Movement: Andante sostenuto (Ternary form [ABA’] with coda ).  E MAJOR, 3/4 time.
A Section
0:00 [m. 1]--The first part of the theme is played by the strings.  A bassoon doubles the violin melody.  The initial statement is a gentle rise and fall with a dotted rhythm (long-short) on the fall.  Three low repeated horn octaves bridge to the answer, which also incorporates a dotted rhythm and is given a dark, minor-key color.  The horn octaves contribute to this “darkening” in the answer.
0:23 [m. 5]--The theme continues with a new phrase.  It begins on an upbeat syncopation with two rising and swelling half-steps (the first movement’s “motto”) from the first violins, harmonized by second violins and violas (with half-steps in the opposite direction).  The bassoon has dropped out.  The first bar has no bass line provided by the low strings.  They enter in the next bar with a surging triplet rhythm as the violins play a falling dotted rhythm.  The surging bass is heard again a step lower under another violin dotted rhythm with a wider leap.  The volume has swelled to a louder level than the opening.  In the next bar, all the instruments settle down, the violins sliding down in dotted rhythm while the cellos play rising triplets.
0:44 [m. 9]--The arrival point of the previous phrase merges with a new one in which the first violins hesitantly slide up by half-steps.  They repeat this “motto” gesture three times, with new harmonies under each.  The cellos still punctuate the downbeats with triplets.  When the violins reach their high point, flutes, oboes, and clarinets make a somewhat dramatic entrance to support the harmony.  The winds exit after two bars.  The strings continue with sighing gestures that lead to another statement of the “dark” answering phrase from the opening, now with bass imitation and richer harmony.  It is extended with a viola echo and a half-cadence.
1:28 [m. 18]--The oboe enters on an upbeat with the second theme of the A section.  The strings, except for light viola support, drop out, and other winds provide the harmony.  The oboe melody incorporates the sighing falls and dotted rhythms of the previous theme, but it is more dynamic.  After two statements of the opening gesture, it rises to a full-hearted high point.  Under this high point, the strings surreptitiously enter in unison with the opening rise and fall of the main theme.  The oboe trails after this.
2:01 [m. 24]--The “dark” answering phrase is played by strings with its original harmony.  A bassoon again doubles the first violins, and there is horn support.  The phrase is cut off before its last sighing gesture, and is interrupted by a new syncopated descent beginning off the beat.  This is slightly accented.  Then, the answering phrase begins again, but it is transformed into a satisfying major-key cadence gesture that reaches a full close in E major.  This closes the A section and merges directly into the B section.
B Section, Part 1
2:22 [m. 28]--Out of the cadence, the first violins lead into a lilting, leaping dotted rhythm that continues from the upbeat into the next bar.  The second violins and violas follow on the lilting dotted rhythm as the first violins work upward by half-steps in syncopation.  They then turn back downward as the low strings enter.  They work back upward, now with the dotted rhythm displaced by syncopation.  The second violins and violas continue with the original figures.  There is then a huge swelling as the bassoons and horns enter with the dotted rhythm.  The music suddenly darkens and turns to the related C-sharp minor.
2:50 [m. 34]--At the high point, when C-sharp minor is reached, the second violins and violas rush downward under the slower first violins.  The dotted rhythm is now played by the low strings and suddenly takes on the character of a funeral march, a complete transformation from the lilting, graceful figures just heard.  The upper strings continue to work downward, and only slightly diminish as the low strings move to soft plucking.  This stormy passage culminates in a strong half-cadence that rapidly diminishes, leading into Part 2 of the B section.
B Section, Part 2
3:13 [m. 39]--The principal oboist, who has a long, gentle solo in C-sharp minor, enters on the upbeat of the half-cadence.  The violins and violas begin a series of harmonized and highly syncopated gestures, all of which begin off the beat.  The first oboe note is sustained for a full measure, and it only moves after the downbeat of the next bar.  This, combined with the syncopated accompanying string figures, as well as the construction of the melody itself, causes the meter and downbeat to become highly obscured.  The oboe melody meanders downward, then has an octave leap, after which it begins to pivot to A-flat major.  The principal clarinet enters with a held note on an upbeat as the oboe wends its way downward.
3:32 [m. 44]--The clarinet takes over the melody from the oboe and takes a somewhat brighter tone, moving to D-flat (or C-sharp) major.  The syncopated gestures from violins and violas begin to have some stepwise motion rather than simply repeating notes.  The clarinet breaks, then has a wide rising figure.  Under this, the low strings have entered.  They take over the figuration of the meandering melody as other winds also enter for a cadence.
3:52 [m. 49]--The winds drop out.  The syncopated gestures begin a new phrase, and they suddenly begin to outline the contour of the “answering” phrase from the A section’s main theme.  The winds protest with descending lines that attempt to retain the major key, but the strings become more insistent, and the winds give in, joining them on the urgent syncopations and using the dark character of the “answering” phrase to firmly move back to minor.  Strong accents on weak beats prolong the obscured meter and downbeat.
4:08 [m. 53]--At the high point, where minor is established again, the strings finally break from the off-beat syncopated gestures.  All strings play the original oboe melody in unison with an insistent character.  The winds play melancholy, wailing gestures above them in octaves.  The strings then depart from the oboe melody, expanding it with an upward sweep and breaking into harmony while the winds move to syncopated thirds.  The higher strings reverse direction while the lower strings take the upward sweep.
4:23 [m. 57]--The strings continue to descend.  The second violins and violas move to undulating figuration, and the clarinets and bassoons follow the descent in thirds.  The top violin line becomes more syncopated, and the music becomes more urgent as it descends, leaping upward to postpone it.  Finally, things start to settle down, the winds take over, and the music moves back to major, this time to the home key of E.  Flutes and oboes, then violins and violas, then clarinets and bassoons, then upper strings again are isolated on harmonized four-note gestures.  Violas and cellos then close with a quiet, slower off-beat descent.
4:48 [m. 63]--Re-transition.  Overlapping entries on rising, then falling figures, first in strings, then in winds, further obscure the meter.  Already beginning off the beat, they fall into groupings of four notes that clash with the 3/4 bars.  A soft timpani roll begins during the string descent.  At that point, slight syncopation and extension help to restore a sense of pulse.  The passage is quiet and mysterious, and becomes more so when the timpani roll is suddenly isolated.
A’ Section
5:09 [m. 67]--The winds brightly enter on an upbeat that is held over the bar.  The theme emerges in the oboes and clarinets, but is obscured by the flutes, who play an upper harmony.  The strings enter just after the winds, halfway through the upbeat, and play a sweeping line that also obscures the appearance of the main theme.  The cellos play plucked arpeggios in triplet rhythm.  Only with the falling dotted rhythm is it clear that the theme has arrived.  The timpani roll ends, and the continuing string line, rather than solemn horn octaves, bridges to the answer, which is now stated clearly by flute, clarinet, and bassoon.  The low strings add an echo to the end of the answering phrase that was not heard at the beginning.
5:37 [m. 72]--This music is essentially analogous to 0:23 [m. 5], but the sliding half-steps are now played by oboe.  The other winds provide the harmony in the opposite direction.  The strings add an entirely new element, rapid plucked rising arpeggios, then short notes leading into the next bar.  At the point where the low strings enter with the surging triplet motion, the music appears to want to follow the A section, but a new and strong turn to the “dominant” key of B major and a higher reach toward a descent prevent this.
5:57 [m. 76]--Analogous to 0:44 [m. 9], but not only is the key now B major, the sliding half-steps are embellished with triplet rhythm.  The winds are now present throughout for support.  The three “motto” statements become progressively softer.  The third suddenly and dramatically swells to the high point, which is warm and rich in comparison to the sighing gestures heard in the A section.  It is also extended by a bar as the music quickly settles down again and the triplet rhythm stops.  The “dark” answering phrase is then heard essentially as it was at this point before, only now in the new key and without the viola echo or half-cadence.
6:40 [m. 85]--An new wind interpolation here is almost otherworldly in effect.  The wandering motion was already anticipated in the extended high point, and the descending half-steps heard against the wandering motion reverse the “motto.”  The strings bring things back to earth with the falling figures that introduced the statement of the answering phrase just before.  These lead to a full cadence in B major that is overlapped by the upbeat entrance of the solo violin that begins the second theme.
7:10 [m. 91]--The approach to the second theme is on the same harmony, but with a different effect.  Rather than against a half-cadence, it now enters on a full B-major cadence.  Thus, the pivot back to the home key of E adds fulfillment to this arrival.  The theme itself, formerly played by oboe alone, is now joined by a solo violin and horn.  The part for solo violin persists until the end of the movement, as the concertmaster separates from the rest of the violins.  The theme follows 1:28 [m. 18] rather closely, but in addition to the melodic doubling, there is a richer accompaniment, with imitative rising gestures first from the remaining violins and violas, then from flute and clarinet.  The cellos have plucked triplet arpeggios.  The main theme still makes its entrance (without the preoccupied cellos) at the high point, which is now much stronger.
7:46 [m. 97]--Analogous to 2:01 [m. 24], but the first statement of the answering phrase is now played by flute and clarinet.  The syncopated interruption is given by the solo violin and oboe, with plucked cello triplets making a last appearance.  The cadence statement is again taken by flute and clarinet, but it does not reach completion.  It merges directly into the coda, as the previous passage had merged into the B section, but other than in the bass, the final motion to the cadence is avoided.  The strings and timpani begin the off-beat triplet figures that will underlie the opening of the coda.
8:06 [m. 101]--The solo horn begins the coda with a full statement of the first two gestures from the second theme.  Strings and timpani continue with the off-beat triplet figures, now with flutes, and the low strings (with the second horn) have a long, sustained keynote.  The solo violin adds highly decorative commentary to the horn statement, breaking into groups of six (sextuplets) against the second gesture.  The clarinets now take over the triplet arpeggios that had just been heard from plucked cellos.
8:26 [m. 105]--The winds lead into the high point of the main theme as the strings drop out.  The high point stalls, and the initial falling figure is passed from flute to violins (without the solo) a step higher, with accompaniment from other strings.  The winds, with flutes leading, then play the figure again, now a step lower than the first statement, and the strings repeat this.  Finally, the solo violin and clarinet extend this falling figure, which diminishes and reaches an anticipatory pause over fading strings and bassoons.
9:04 [m. 112]--The bassoons play the answering phrase, imitated closely by the oboes, with horn support and a surprising entrance from the trumpets.  The flutes join at the cadence, which overlaps with an unexpected reminiscence of the B section’s first part as the violins and violas play the lilting dotted rhythm.  The winds then fall from the cadence, and the lilting strings slow down.
9:30 [m. 117]--On an upbeat held into the next bar, a chord, punctuated by a timpani roll and topped by the solo violin, introduces one more statement of the half-step “motto.”  It is harmonized by the now-familiar contrary motion.  The bass instruments, who dropped out under the lilting rhythm, re-enter at the top of the motive, which is followed by a warmly sweeping violin line, with the solo an octave above the others.  The “lilting” rhythm then enters on the same pitches as before, but now played by winds (without oboe).
10:03 [m.123]--As before, a chord enters on an upbeat held into the next bar with a timpani roll.  This time all instruments except the solo violin participate.  The “motto” is beautifully transformed to two whole-steps instead of two half-steps, leading to a gorgeous cadence.  As it arrives, the strings, from low to high, play plucked arpeggios in triplets, supported by timpani beats.  At the top, the solo violin, contrasted from the others by using the bow, rounds off the triplets.  On its last note, the winds play their penultimate chord.  The strings, now using bows, softly confirm that chord, then all instruments, including the timpani with a roll, reiterate it again.  Only the solo violin holds its last note over both of these reiterations.
10:57--END OF MOVEMENT [128 mm.]

3rd Movement: Un poco Allegretto e grazioso (Ternary form [ABA’] resembling a scherzo and trio).  A-FLAT MAJOR,  2/4 and 6/8 time.
FIRST SECTION or “Scherzo” (A), 2/4 time
0:00 [m. 1]--First part (a).  The main melody is a gently wandering phrase played by clarinets.  Bassoon, horn, and plucked cellos add harmony and counterpoint.  The plucked cellos establish a steady pulse, which they almost constantly maintain.  The upper strings enter at the end of the phrase.  They, along with the second clarinet, extend the phrase to a fifth bar while the first clarinet sustains the last note.  The second phrase is an exact inversion (upside-down melody) of the first, with oboe added to the scoring. 
0:17 [m. 11]--The answering phrase is in E-flat.  Winds (without oboes) descend in a dotted (long-short) rhythm, harmonized in thirds.  Two two-bar descents are followed by more arching figures, still in the dotted rhythm.  The strings, including the cellos, add sweeping arpeggios as a counterpoint to the wind descents, and horns hold longer notes.  The strings join the dotted rhythm in the second half.  The steady plucking, now more static, is transferred to the string basses, who add short breaks in the second half.
0:30 [m. 19]--The opening melody returns, now played by the violins.  The cellos return to their steady plucking, and the first clarinet, which had presented the melody, plays a bouncy counterpoint in triplet rhythm.  Flutes and oboes enter for the prolongation of the phrase, stretched to seven total bars by internal half-step motion.  The second phrase, which is still an exact inversion, lacks the bouncy clarinet line, adds a horn harmony, and adds oboes and bassoons (instead of flutes) at the three-bar prolongation.  The prolongation leading into the answering phrase has rising half-steps that recall the “motto.”
0:54 [m. 33]--The answering phrase in E-flat begins as before, with the two descents.  The second half is altered.  The strings maintain their arpeggios rather than joining the dotted rhythm.  The oboe enters as a participant, alternating with flutes and clarinets on the dotted rhythm.  Instead of turning back home to A-flat, the music instead turns to the related minor key, F minor.  This happens in a four-bar extension in which both the strings and winds (first clarinets and bassoons, then flute and oboes) descend a scale over two octaves.
1:13 [m. 45]--Second part (b).  At the F-minor cadence, the strings begin a distinctive pulsation, with low strings on the first and last notes of quick four-note units, while violins and violas play the middle notes of these units.  The clarinet begins an agitated melody that seems derived from both phrases of a.  Flute and oboe take over the melody after two bars.  They greatly swell in volume.  An answering phrase erupts in flutes, clarinets, and bassoons, all playing in thirds.  This phrase turns to C major with some minor-key inflection, and is quite exuberant.  The strings have some minor departures from the constant pulsation.
1:28 [m. 54]--The oboe plays a new phrase of the agitated melody that goes in basically the opposite direction from the original, a version of which is heard against it in the low strings.  A horn joins after two bars.  The pulsations continue, now with groups of three off-beat notes, and the music builds again.  The exuberant answering phrase arrives, but stays in F minor and is cut off after three notes by murmuring violins and violas.  These diminish.  A clarinet echo of the three answering notes is heard, continuing the downward motion.  The murmuring stings again respond, bridging to the opening melody.
1:41 [m. 62]--Third part (a’).  The opening melody returns in its original instruments, clarinets and horns.  The motion from F minor back to A-flat happens smoothly in the plucked low strings.  To these elements is added the murmuring violin/viola line, continuing from the end of b.  After the first phrase, the previous extension from the fifth bar is used to begin a bridge to the Trio section.  The sustained notes and flowing motion under them are extended.  Finally, the murmuring violins and violas stop.  The clarinets and horns, followed by violins, play a slow descending arpeggio on the “dominant” chord, E-flat, while the cellos pluck an upward arpeggio on that chord.  The bridge diminishes in volume, merging directly into the Trio.
SECOND SECTION or “Trio” (B), B major, 6/8 time
1:56 [m. 71]--Part 1.  E-flat is re-interpreted as D-sharp, making a transition to the remote key of B major for the trio.  The basic material is three repeated notes or chords in the winds beginning off the beat, alternating with descending broken chords in the strings.  Two of these alternations are followed by a buoyant wind phrase with string support.  This pattern then happens again, now with horns and bassoons on the repeated notes and with a turn to D-sharp minor (and back to the “pivot” note from the opening).
2:10 [m. 79]--Part 1, varied repetition.  The first four bars are as before, but the second statement of the pattern is shifted down a half-step and changed in character to move to D major instead of D-sharp minor.  It also dramatically increases in volume.
2:24 [m. 87]--Part 2.  The basic pattern is stated two more times in a more dynamic manner as the music takes a path back to B major with a detour through G.  The orchestration of the opening repeated notes is richer.  The second statement of the pattern greatly builds, and the “buoyant wind phrase” expands into a climax with string arpeggios played in a shimmering tremolo.  Under this buildup, the bass line starts to move by half-steps, and there are strong, but brief suggestions of another detour, this time to C major.
2:43 [m. 99]--The climax arrives with highly syncopated wind instruments over continuing tremolo string arpeggios.  At the top, the trumpets, who have had a supporting role, join brightly on the “buoyant phrase.”  After this, the basic pattern is stated one more time, now with the instruments reversed.  The strings take the repetitions and the winds the descending broken chords.  Following this, the strings again take the broken chords and run them together, obscuring the meter.  Strong syncopation in all instruments leads to a strong cadence.  Horns and trumpets play a suddenly quiet harmonized arpeggio to lead back to the repeat.
3:01 [m. 87]--Part 2 repeated.  Buildup toward climax, as before.
3:20 [m. 99]--Climax, as before.  Instead of the transition back to the repeat, the horns and trumpets play the “repeated note” pattern on an octave.  The flutes, oboes, and bassoons then restate this.  The note D-sharp/E-flat is again used as a pivot, and this begins the re-transition back to the main “scherzo” music.
THIRD SECTION or “Scherzo reprise” (A’), 2/4 time
3:38 [m. 109]--Re-transition.  The music shifts back to 2/4.  The strings play a strong hint at the opening of the main theme, but in A-flat minor rather than major.  Carrying over from the “trio,” the wind instruments (except clarinets) continue to play the “repeated note” pattern in octaves.  This is now notated in triplet rhythm, effectively remaining in the previous 6/8.  Finally, the strings, in plucked harmony under held winds, play a descent in A-flat minor leading to the return of the main theme.  This plucked descent is very similar to the descending line that will open the last movement.  Notes are reiterated and rapidly diminish.
3:51 [m. 115]--The reprise is abbreviated, and the middle section (b) does not appear again.  At the moment of return, the clarinets, with the horn and plucked cellos, play as at the opening.  The major difference is that flutes and oboes above them are now playing the “repeated notes” from the “trio” in triplet (6/8) rhythm.  They even recall the “buoyant phrase.”  The melody and contour of the first phrase are unchanged.
3:59 [m. 120]--The second phrase, which had been a melodic inversion, is now completely changed in character.  It is transferred from the clarinets to the first violins, who decorate and alter it in a manner that anticipates a major portion of the finale’s main theme (the “big tune”).  The plucked cellos continue, and the second violins add syncopation.  Clarinets and bassoons play harmonized descending lines in triplet rhythm, taking that motion over from flutes and oboes.  The phrase is extended from five to six bars.  Flutes and clarinets play a harmonized arpeggio leading into the “answering” material.
4:09 [m. 126]--The “answering phrase” is quite similar to its earlier statements, and starts on the same pitch level, but the harmony remains in A-flat rather than moving to E-flat.  The violin and viola arpeggios are played over more static plucking from cellos and basses.  After the first two descents, the familiar “arching figures” begin in the dotted rhythm as expected, with the entrance of the oboes.  These, however, expand powerfully in intensity.  The string arpeggios become more frequent, and the strings do not participate in the dotted rhythm as they had previously done.  The low plucking, however, does add the expected breaks.
4:28 [m. 138]--A small climax arrives.  Flutes, oboes, and horns play a three-note descent that is very similar to the one heard in the transition from b to a at 1:28 [m. 54].  Under this, the strings play plucked arpeggios, moving from low to high and becoming quieter and slower as they go.  These introduce chromatic harmonies hinting at D-flat major and continue for a bar after the descent.  A second three-note descent is heard over another plucked arpeggio.  Finally, a third descent with notes twice as slow is played by horns and clarinets.  Only the cellos pluck underneath them, now without the initial faster notes.
4:39 [m. 144]--Under a sustained note from bassoons, horns, and first violins, the other strings quietly play a darker version of the main theme in unison.  The instruments holding the note begin to move in the third bar to create harmony, and the second violins leave the unison statement to join them.  The unison statement is answered brightly by the winds with the “answering phrase.”  The bassoons ascend against the other winds.  Finally, the strings take over the phrase, the clarinets holding over from the winds.  Violins and clarinets ascend and the lower strings descend as they approach an apparent cadence.
5:01 [m. 154]--Coda.  Brahms indicates poco a poco più tranquillo, a direction that seems to mean both gradually quieter and slower.  This already applies to the last statement of the answering phrase.  Brahms averts the cadence by bringing back the music of the “trio,” notated with triplets.  Violins play a harmonized “repeated note” gesture, and the lower strings, with violas adding harmony above them, play the descending broken chords.  These move briefly to D-flat.  Flutes, clarinets, and bassoons answer them with the formerly “buoyant” phrase, now very gently played, moving back to A-flat.
5:11 [m. 158]--The “trio” pattern is heard again, now even more gently, with high winds playing the “repeated note” pattern instead of the violins.  The horns and bassoons now add harmony to the descending broken chords.  The violins and violas take the answering phrase under wind syncopations.  They briefly build the tension toward a “dominant” chord, held by the winds, then plucked by the strings.  This tension is finally releived with a delayed cadence, punctuated by a last descending broken chord from the low strings.
5:37--END OF MOVEMENT [164 mm.]

4th Movement: Adagio - Più Andante - Allegro non troppo, ma con brio (Varied Sonata-Allegro form with development and recapitulation combined, and with large two-part introduction).  C MAJOR (with C-minor opening), 4/4 time, moving to Cut Time [2/2] at the Più Allegro coda.
Part 1, Adagio, C minor
0:00 [m. 1]--In the ominous opening, the violas and low strings play a four-note descent.  Overlapping with this, the violins, wind instruments, and timpani enter with an anticipation of the main theme in a dark, tragic version.  They swell forward on this, and then rapidly diminish, with the bassoons and violas trailing down as the violins play despairing echoes.  The descending winds recall the introduction of the first movement.
0:48 [m. 6]--The strings begin a strange passage of pizzicato (completely plucked in all instruments).  They pass two-note figures between instrument groups, beginning very quietly.  The plucked strings very gradually gain momentum and volume as they move through G minor, E-flat minor, and F minor.  At the end of the passage, they are moving quite quickly and press forward to a chord that is suddenly cut off.
1:17 [m. 12]--The winds return to the slow tempo and, in a wailing three-note descent, lead into another statement of the “dark” anticipation of the main theme.  This time, the violins and violas state this at the same pitch level where it will be heard in the exposition.  They are bowed again after the pizzicato passage.  Oboes, horns, and bassoons play the trailing lines, and there is a single string echo.
1:49 [m. 16]--A second passage of pizzicato, very similar to the first, now has the low strings leading in the passing of two-note groups.  Again, the passage builds and speeds up, much more quickly this time, as the passage is shorter than the first one.  The keys that are now suggested after C minor are B-flat minor and the remote A-flat minor.  The pizzicato is now cut off after four bars.
2:15 [m. 20]--The low strings hold a note as the flutes and oboes play a sighing response.  The low strings then surge slightly forward before they wait for another string response.  They then surge forward again.  The music has moved back to C minor.
2:26 [m. 22]--The winds now press forward with the same material, building rapidly in volume.  The other strings join in on the “surging” figures.  There is mild syncopation in both winds and strings.
2:34 [m. 24]--Beginning in F minor, the strings now play a series of broken, rapid descending lines with light wind support.  These lines diminish before a sudden upward surge with brass and winds.  They then descend and diminish again.  Finally, the flutes, oboes, and bassoons begin to play a wailing three-note descent that will soon be revealed as the “alphorn” figure that will dominate the second part of the introduction.  With the entry of a powerful timpani roll, this steady surge is suddenly cut off.  The C-minor key is somewhat sidestepped at this point, but the low strings hold on, diminish, and descend, leading into the new tempo and C-major key for the introduction’s second part.
Part 2, Più Andante, C major
3:04 [m. 30]--Over a soft timpani roll and the first entry of the trombones, the horns enter with a suddenly noble and grand presentation of what Brahms called the “alphorn” tune or what others have labeled as the “London chimes” melody.  After a bar, the violins and violas begin to play a shimmering tremolo underneath the tune.  The horns pass the melody between themselves to maintain breath support.  The main characteristic of the melody is its opening descent with prominent short-long rhythm.  The melody is nine bars long, with two longer notes in the second phrase extending it a bar more than expected.
3:45 [m. 38]--As the horns reach their cadence, the flutes enter in overlap with their famous presentation of the “alphorn” melody.  Like the horns, they pass it between each other to maintain full breath and tone.  The trombones are largely absent now, but other instruments, such as bassoon and horn, have prominent motions, including half-steps, under the flute melody, and there is a trumpet echo.  The shimmering, hushed string tremolo continues along with the timpani roll (which swells slightly), and the flutes play the complete two-phrase melody without any overlap at the end.
4:31 [m. 47]--The trombones, with bassoon support, intone a solemn chorale.  This chorale will not appear again until the very end of the movement, at the moment of triumph, but its isolated presentation here is quite memorable.  The last leap downward of the chorale is punctuated by another timpani roll.
4:58 [m. 52]--The horns, along with one flute and one clarinet, pass the first bar of the “alphorn” melody among themselves.  The string tremolo and timpani roll surge forward in volume.  After four bars, the second half of the melody, beginning with its highest note, is heard.  The prominent half-step motions are played by the trombones.  The end of the melody is fragmented and repeated, and the volume settles back down rapidly.  At the end, the horns play a last echo of the tune with the trombones and hold it over as the other instruments, except for the timpani, drop out.  Horns and trombones are isolated on a preparatory “dominant” chord.  This anticipatory pause qualifies as one of the most “golden” moments in all of music.
EXPOSITION - Allegro non troppo, ma con brio, C major
5:42 [m. 62]--Theme 1.  Emerging out of the “golden moment” is the “big tune,” the one that was compared with the “joy” theme of Beethoven’s Ninth.  The violins, in their rich low register, present the glorious melody while the low strings pluck beneath them, horns and strings adding support.  The opening upbeat leap is distinctive, and the connection to the “dark” anticipation at the movement’s opening is clear.  Halfway through the melody, in the second phrase, is a melodic turn that is most reminiscent of the Beethoven melody.  This second phrase delays its cadence by a bar as the oboes join in to support it.  This creates a 17-bar melody.
6:25 [m. 78]--As the theme reaches its cadence, a second statement, or counterstatement, overlaps it.  This statement of the theme is led by the winds, most of whom play at least fragments of it in gentle harmonies.  Now all strings provide a plucked accompaniment, and they are supported by the timpani.  Small rolls punctuate the timpani part.  At the end of the statement, the volume increases very dramatically.  As the cadence is approached, the violins and violas take up their bows to reiterate and support it.
7:01 [m. 94]--Transition.  What sounds like it will be a third statement of the theme, this time a grand one from the full orchestra, is instead almost immediately fragmented, mainly isolating the opening three-note turn figure.  The motion toward G major begins.  There are two large descents on D minor and A minor with surging bass lines.  The passage is richly scored and heavily accented throughout.
7:22 [m. 106]--The transition continues with running scales in strings and bassoons.  Winds, brass, and low strings add loud punctuations against these scales.  The motion to G major is delayed by a move back to C.
7:37 [m. 114]--The “alphorn” theme from the introduction appears in its original instruments, flute and horn.  The horn imitates the flute on fragments of the tune.  The strings continue against this with agitated arpeggios, and the cellos and basses add plucked punctuation.  The motion to G major is finally completed.
7:45 [m. 118]--Theme 2.  The low strings establish an “ostinato” bass on the same four-note descent that opened the movement and is also implied within the “alphorn” theme.  The violins begin the theme, which winds downward, leaps back up, and then flows forward.  The volume increases somewhat and the music hints at the related key of E minor.  The winds then enter with a continuation of the theme.  The strings recover this and build again.  The low strings finally move away from their anchor, moving their four-note descents up a fifth.  This buildup leads to a small climax with a descending syncopation and then a skipping dotted (long-short) rhythm (G major).
8:10 [m. 132]--The oboe leads a continuation of Theme 2 that is again quiet and gentle.  It incorporates a triplet rhythm, then moves to upward leaps.  Other winds support the line, and the violas have a pulsing syncopation.  The low strings add a distinctive foundation to the ascending oboe leaps.  This passage moves to the related key of E minor, where the closing material is heard and where the exposition will end.
8:31 [m. 142]--Closing material.  The violas begin with tremolo arpeggios that steadily build.  Violins join them.  Horns and trumpets begin to add punctuations.  Eventually, the strings join in a powerful downward-arching unison that leads to a soaring, sighting dotted rhythm.  Winds and brass add loud cadence figures to this.  This material briefly suggests D major, but as the sighing figures work their way downward, the minor key is again firmly established (E minor).
8:55 [m. 156]--The orchestra cuts off, and the oboe leads another statement of the “soaring,” sighing figures.  It begins more subdued.  To these are added brief figures in triplet rhythm, first in the violas and then, more loudly, in violins and lower strings.  These “sighing” figures again suggest D major.  The loud cadence figures incorporate the triplet rhythm.  The oboe takes up the continuation with the triplet figures again in the violas.  This continuation is passed to the flute, and the music again seems to move to G major (with minor inflections), the key of Theme 2.
9:09 [m. 164]--The triplet rhythm now completely takes over.  The violins and violas quietly begin to build on it in G major/minor.  Suddenly, the whole orchestra bursts forward with ascending triplet groups harmonized in thirds.  The violins play a powerful hammering dotted rhythm against this, then take up triplets themselves in a slightly syncopated continuation.  This firmly re-establishes E minor.  This sequence of hammering figures and the syncopated continuation is heard again at a higher level, leading to a solid E-minor cadence.
9:30 [m. 176]--The cadence is given a strong reiteration by the full orchestra, including trombones.  A heavily syncopated leap is supported by rising triplet figures in the winds and also thumping triplets in the timpani.  The strings then firmly state the cadence.  The syncopated leap is reiterated twice more, and then the winds and strings play an extended version of the E-minor cadence that adds strong, isolated final chords.  Immediately after this powerful cadence, the horn, oboe, and finally flute and clarinet play quiet rising figures leading to the return of the “big” main theme.
9:48 [m. 186]--Theme 1.  This is the last time the “big tune” will be stated in its entirety.  This time, the scoring is much richer.  The violins still carry the melody, but there are new short, punctuating chords in the winds, along with timpani beats and rolls, and the horns double and harmonize the theme itself.  The trumpets also add punctuation.  The theme’s material follows its first statement quite closely until the end.  The oboe enters to support the cadence, as expected, but it diverts the harmony to a new key, E-flat major, indicating that this is development as well as recapitulation.  The violins confirm the motion to E-flat and bring the theme to a cadence.  This extends the ending of the theme by two bars.
10:27 [m. 204]--The theme has a counterstatement, as before, but it already appears to begin the “development” portion.  Beginning in E-flat in the winds, with plucked string accompaniment, it is suddenly arrested by a horn echo that turns to minor.  There follows a section of plucked string figures passed from violins to low strings that is highly reminiscent of the two strange pizzicato passages from Part 1 of the introduction.  This rapid plucking is supported by chords in horns and bassoons, later trumpets as it builds.
10:41 [m. 212]--The key turns up smoothly to F-sharp major, where the winds attempt to “recover” the counterstatement.  This time, the clarinets and bassoons play “trailing” lines.  The strings keep a vestige of the more rapid pace just heard with notes after the beats in second violins and violas.  As before, a turn to minor, now from a clarinet and bassoon echo, leads to a rapid pizzicato passage reminiscent of the introduction.  Horns and oboes join the clarinets and bassoons as it builds.  Low strings and violins are reversed in position, and the harmonic motion is more dynamic than the first time.
10:55 [m. 220]--Transition.  The digressions of the counterstatement prove to be anticipations, rather than the beginning, of the development portion.  The rapid plucking leads back to the home key of C major, and the transition begins with the grand statement of the theme and the continuation just as it was heard at 7:01 [m. 94], through the large descents on D minor and A minor.  The bass line of the latter is slightly shifted.
11:15 [m. 232]--The “development” actually begins here.  The transition is interrupted by two bars of heavily accented notes with longer echoes, all in the strings, where the running scales would be expected.  The scales do begin after these bars, passed between violins and lower strings, with wind support as before, but the harmonic motion is different, settling this time on D minor.  They are richly harmonized.  The scales retain a descending motion throughout and taper off rather than building up.
11:35 [m. 244]--The scales continue quietly in the strings.  Figures derived from the opening “turn” figure of the main theme are passed between oboe and flute, still in D minor.  Then the winds turn to a soaring line, over the continuing scales, that makes a turn back to C major.
11:44 [m. 249]--The “turn” figures, now including bassoon, are played by two instruments at a time, still with dovetailing overlap.  The scales are only in the violins now, the cellos playing plucked arpeggios.  The key is F minor.  The winds again turn to the “soaring” line, which first moves to E major.  It is given a second statement that moves back to C.
11:59 [m. 257]--After a brief breath, a powerful passage begins.  It starts with figures reminiscent of the two descents that ended the transition passage.  It then incorporates the descending scales, which are passed between wind and string instruments with full harmonies and heavily accented supporting chords.  Finally, the strings take the leaping descents while scale fragments are passed among the wind instruments.  The entire passage vacillates between C minor and F minor.
12:17 [m. 268]--Beginning on an upbeat, the winds begin to blast out the turn figures derived from the main theme.  They are supported by brass chords and timpani rolls.  The strings play isolated descending scale fragments against each arrival point of the turn figures.  Two pairs of these patterns begin to work upward.  A third pair has the violins taking the turn figures over from the winds, and flutes joining the scale fragments.  Then, building toward a climax, the turn figures are passed between the high strings and high winds, the lower instruments of both groups providing support in long-short rhythm.  The figures remain static for three bars before moving upward in the strings.  Timpani beats and rolls underscore the buildup.
12:37 [m. 279]--In a tremendous climax, the full orchestra blasts out descending figures that are derived from the “alphorn” melody.  These begin off the beat, creating a highly disorienting syncopation.  They are in C minor, where the previous buildup has arrived.  Timpani rolls support the climax, and the trombones make their first entry since the end of the exposition.  The figures are passed between strings and winds with full support.  The strings then move downward, seeming to move toward B-flat minor.
12:50 [m. 285]--In one of the most remarkable moments of the symphony, the opening of the “alphorn” theme is blasted by the violins, but the underlying harmony, a “diminished seventh,” gives it a dark, highly tragic quality, and this is underscored by a thundering timpani roll and full brass.  Almost immediately, the bass instruments descend and the volume rapidly diminishes.  The violins play another statement of the “alphorn” gesture an octave lower, this time with its warm, familiar major-key surroundings.  This direct juxtaposition of agitation and peacefulness is both striking and highly unexpected.
13:02 [m. 289]--The horns lead a full statement of the “alphorn” melody that initially follows the lines of the transition to the “golden moment” and the main theme at the end of the introduction from 4:58 [m. 52].  Unlike that passage, this one does not have the shimmering string tremolos.  There are instead smoothly moving harmonies in violas and cellos, and the violins participate in the “alphorn” statement.  At the moment where the “golden moment” would be expected, the violins take over, and they extend the anticipatory passage.  Brahms marks this “calando” (“dying”), and the strings slowly descend under pulsating timpani.  This extension and alteration serves to prepare Theme 2 instead of the main theme.
13:45 [m. 301]--Theme 2.  The theme appears and picks up the recapitulation again.  This time, it has an introductory bar that introduces the descending four-note “ostinato” in all strings before the actual theme begins.  After this new introductory bar, the theme follows the pattern from 7:45 [m. 118], now in the home key of C major, and with some significant changes in scoring.  Most notable among these is that every other statement of the descending “ostinato” is now played by wind instruments (flute, clarinet, and bassoon), alternating with the low strings four times.  A continuation previously taken by winds is played by violins and violas.  The descending syncopations and skipping dotted rhythms are largely as before.
14:10 [m. 316]--The continuation from 8:10 [m. 132] is also rescored.  The quiet and gentle line with the triplet rhythm is now played by violins.  When the upward leaps arrive, the responses to them are played by horn as well as the original instrument, the oboe.  At the very end of the line, an alteration and expansion of the final fall prevents the key change that happened here in the exposition, which would have placed the closing theme in A minor.  This alteration allows the music to remain in C, shifting from major to minor.
14:32 [m. 326]--Closing material.  This is analogous to 8:31 [m. 142], with no significant alterations other than key.  It is in C minor, and not the expected and analogous A minor, as the symphony must end in C.  The key that is briefly suggested at the loud cadence figures is B-flat major.
14:55 [m. 340]--The passage from 8:55 [m. 156] is restated here with some changes in scoring.  A flute joins the oboe on the “soaring, sighing” figures.  The triplets are played by both violins and violas from the outset.  The continuation that was passed from oboe to flute is now taken by clarinet throughout, first doubled by horn and then by oboe at the point where it had been passed to the flute.
15:09 [m. 348]--The material from 9:09 [m. 164], with the buildup on the triplet figures and the hammering dotted rhythm, is given with no significant changes other than key.
15:29 [m. 360]--The strong reiterations of the cadence with syncopated leaps from 9:30 [m. 176] are given, but this time without the entry of the trombones or timpani.  The first statement of the cadence after the first syncopated leap is, however, more richly scored, with full winds.  The extended cadence, now in C minor, follows, and the timpani make a later entrance at the end where they had not played before, perhaps to compensate for not playing the triplets under the syncopated leaps.
15:42 [m. 367]--Over tremolo violas, the horns, then violins, and finally clarinets, play the gentle and quiet ascending figures that had led into the restatement of Theme 1 before.  Violins then join in the tremolo, trombones make a subdued entrance, and the winds play ominous descending lines, all at a hushed level.
15:59 [m. 375]--Trombone, contrabassoon, and low strings play the opening of the main theme in a similar manner to the darker version heard in the introduction.  There begins a long timpani roll.  The winds play soft echoes, and the violins play ascending arpeggios in tremolo that are reminiscent of the “closing” material.  After two statements of this material, it is wrenched upward a half-step for a third statement.  Then everything is abbreviated, the arpeggios, the Theme 1 fragments, and the wind responses.  There is a huge buildup in volume as well as speed (marked “stringendo“).  The figures become faster, shorter, and syncopated, finally culminating in seven rapidly hammered chords, the timpani breaking the roll to join.
16:24 [m. 391]--The tempo changes to “Più Allegro” and the meter is changed to cut time [2/2] to reflect this acceleration.  The music turns strongly back to the major key.  There, the strings, supported by timpani, begin churning on three notes derived from the main theme’s “turning” figure.  Against this, the winds and brass play two powerful and jarring “diminished seventh” chords that resolve to more pleasing harmonies.  The “churning” music gives rise to more melodic figures that are passed between winds and violins, the lower strings and timpani maintaining a steady beat.  Finally, as the tension and buildup have reached their maximum level, the winds begin to “churn” on the “turning” figure, punctuated by timpani beats and hammering string falls.
16:42 [m. 407]--The tension is released in the symphony’s highly dramatic “moment of triumph.”  All brass and strings joyously proclaim the “chorale” theme that was only heard before in the second part of the introduction, at 4:31 [m. 47].
17:04 [m. 417]--The music regains its momentum by isolating an upward turning figure from the “chorale” and joyously pressing forward in a broad triplet rhythm.  The strings begin this, the winds adding syncopated chords, and then the winds take the turning figure themselves along with both low and high strings.  This music is reminiscent of a moment from the end of Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony where the chorus sings the words “was die Mode streng geteilt” in unison.
17:13 [m. 427]--The strings now play faster triplet figures that are reminiscent of the ascending triplets from the end of the “closing material” in the exposition and recapitulation.  Winds and low strings continue the harmonies and slower triplets.  Everything is then arrested in a strange unison statement of an downward arching figure that is supported by timpani rolls.  This is given twice.  It is reminiscent of both the “alphorn” melody AND a line from the main theme of the first movement.  It seems to begin a third time, with an entry of the trombones, but it follows a more pleasing downward path, leading to three short, strong chords on the expectant “dominant” harmony.
17:34 [m. 447]--The “churning” derived from the main theme begins the closing passage.  It is supported by loud brass and wind chords.  It works its way upward.  A timpani roll is heard over a powerful ascending arpeggio from the bass instruments.  This leads to three short and strong C-major chords from the whole orchestra, followed by the final long, extended chord, under which is another timpani roll.
17:53--END OF MOVEMENT [457 mm.]