Recording: Itzhak Perlman, violin and Daniel Barenboim, piano (live performance) [Sony SK 45819]
Published 1887

The second sonata for violin and piano is shorter than its earlier companion, Op. 78, but like that piece, it is in three movements.  It is also the second of a group of three chamber works including the Cello Sonata, Op. 99, and the Piano Trio, Op. 101, all composed at Lake Thun in Switzerland, that seem designed to form a group.  The three works have some similarities, including in all cases an unusually brief finale.  Op. 100 is known as an amiable, particularly warm work (in keeping with the tempo marking of its first movement), but it is not without its darker moments, particularly in the first contrasting section of the finale.  Nonetheless, it represents Brahms at his most unbuttoned and is almost pastoral in character.  The second movement is rather unusual in its mixture of two alternating tempi, creating a sort of “double rondo” form.  This is something he had earlier done on a more extended scale in the F-major String Quintet, Op. 88.  Like this work, that one has three movements, and it almost seems as if the fast sections of the nominal “slow” movement are meant to substitute for a missing scherzo, and indeed, those potions of the movement are dance-like.  As in the other two violin sonatas, the first movement has no exposition repeat.

The recording used in this guide was made from a 1989 live performance in Chicago.

ONLINE SCORE FROM IMSLP (First Edition from Brahms-Institut Lübeck)
ONLINE SCORE FROM IMSLP (from Breitkopf & Härtel Sämtliche Werke)

1st Movement: Allegro amabile (Sonata-Allegro form).  A MAJOR, 3/4 time.
0:00 [m. 1]--Theme 1.  A pleasant, gentle waltz tune presented by the piano.  After a regular phrase, the violin adds a short response over a piano arpeggio, creating an irregular five-bar phrase.  The pattern is repeated with the first two bars a step higher and the last three a step lower.
0:15 [m. 11]--The piano has a more urgent phrase with mild syncopation in the last two bars.  Another violin response leads to a second phrase of urgent music, the five bars being completely given by the piano.  There is half-step motion and some more mild syncopation.  An arrival point is implied.
0:31 [m. 21]--The violin now begins a new statement of the theme over flowing piano arpeggios and bass notes.  The first phrase has the same melody, the piano providing a version of the previous violin response.  The second phrase begins as before, a step higher, but the violin diverts the melody and rather then sinking down, the statement soars even higher.  The piano again provides the short response.
0:46 [m. 31]--Transition.  It develops from the “urgent phrase” previously played by the piano.  The irregular five-bar units are abandoned.  Loud, leaping violin octaves are punctuated by sharp piano chords.  The music begins to move toward E major for the second theme.  There are two “hemiolas,” where three 2/4 bars are implied over two 3/4 bars, one at the end of each phrase.
0:57 [m. 39]--The volume backs off a bit, then the violin, still with the punctuating piano responses, begins a soaring ascent that again grows.  Another “hemiola” is used in the ascent.  At the top, the piano begins to play flowing arpeggios as the violin descends and the music settles down in the new key.  The violin leads alone into the second theme.
1:15 [m. 51]--Theme 2.  It is extremely vocal in character, strongly reminiscent of theme from a contemporary song (“Wie Melodien zieht es mir,” Op. 105, No. 1).  The piano presents the melody.  It is richly harmonized, with left hand arpeggios in triplet rhythm (groups of three), going against the straight duple grouping of the melody.  The violin adds short commentaries to the end of the two phrases (E major).
1:29 [m. 59]--The music becomes more aggressive after veering to G-sharp minor.  The piano plays heavily dotted (long-short) chords.  The triplets continue in the left hand.  The music builds to a loud level.  The piano then settles down with sighing thirds.  The violin is absent from this passage.
1:43 [m. 67]--The violin presents Theme 2, back in E major.  The piano accompanies with a rippling right hand in triplet rhythm.  The left hand arpeggios are in straight rhythm, so the piano hands have reversed their rhythms.  The second phrase in the violin is altered so that it stays in E and soars higher.  This second phrase also builds, so that the following passage enters at a stronger level.
1:57 [m. 75]--The violin leads the “aggressive” music, but it is now more heroic in character.  The dotted rhythms in the violin are not as sharp as those in the piano chords, and the violin lines move slightly ahead.  These dotted rhythms lead directly into the closing theme at the climax.
2:04 [m. 79]--Closing Theme.  The piano plays a bright, joyous melody with triplet octaves.  The violin accompanies with more dotted rhythms.  The violin then takes up the melody, the piano triplets moving to precede the violin ones.  The music settles down, both instruments trailing off on the closing material.  The violin drops out first, and the piano ends the exposition, leaving the expected close in E major unresolved and hanging before a one-bar pause.
2:21 [m. 89]--Statement of Theme 1 in the violin beginning in E major.  It is fragmented and quickly modulates away from E.  The piano plays upward-reaching harmonized two-note groups.  As the theme is further fragmented, the segments are placed closer together, and there is another “hemiola” with duple cross groupings briefly obscuring the triple meter.
2:33 [m. 97]--Statement of Theme 1 in the piano beginning in A major.  It also fragments and modulates.  The violin takes the upward-reaching two-note groups.  Like the previous passage, the fragmented segments culminate in a “hemiola” with cross-rhythms suggesting duple meter.
2:45 [m. 105]--The “head motive” of Theme 1 becomes harmonically active.  The passage begins in F major.  The violin plays the motive quietly, and the piano left hand responds loudly, the violin and piano right hand joining in.  This pattern is repeated beginning on B-flat, with the piano right hand responding in octaves instead of the left.
2:54 [m. 111]--The motive is now passed between both hands of the piano and the violin, beginning on E-flat and intensifying greatly, with ever richer harmonies.  This continues, and the music moves toward B.
3:02 [m. 117]--The “heroic” closing theme is presented in a much darker B minor.  The violin leads, the piano punctuating it with sharp groups of chords beginning off the beat.  The mood is very passionate here, and the violin adds a new flourish at the end of this phrase of the closing theme music.
3:07 [m. 120]--The material of the closing section continues in this passionate vein.  It is played in piano bass octaves in the key of F-sharp minor, which is closely related to the home key of A major.  The violin responds with its new flourish, still moving harmonically.
3:13 [m. 124]-- The violin and piano right hand alternate with closing theme fragments.  These gradually settle down in the key of C-sharp minor.  The piano bass thumps octaves on the “dominant” note of that key, G-sharp.  The violin is later reduced to isolated statements of these octaves that alternate with the piano bass, and the piano right hand trails off with dotted rhythms.
3:37 [m. 137]--The formerly heroic “piano octave” closing theme is transformed into a melancholy and passionate, but quiet version in C-sharp minor.  The piano leads the statement, with arching triplet arpeggios in the left hand and the violin.  The new “flourish” is incorporated.  The piano rounds off the theme with two incomplete cadence chord gestures.
3:57 [m. 146]--The violin leads another melancholy statement of the closing theme, still in C-sharp minor.  The piano accompanies with short gestures in triplet rhythm from both hands.  Only one phrase is given in the minor key.
4:05 [m. 150]--In the second phrase of the violin statement, the music makes an extremely sweet turn to C-sharp major.  The piano triplets become more florid, alternating thirds with steady top and bottom notes and moving to chords at the end of each bar.  The theme is extended with cadence gestures and comes to a full close in C-sharp major (which it had not done in the exposition--see 2:21 [m. 89]).  The ending of the development section is thus extremely serene rather than containing the usual tension and preparation. 
4:21 [m. 158]--The reprise begins abruptly, with no preparation for the sudden return home to A major.  The first phrase of Theme 1 is given as at the beginning, but in the second phrase, the melody is transferred to the violin, the piano taking an accompanying role with broken octaves in the right hand moving to more syncopated figures.  The piano takes the “fifth bar” response normally associated with the violin.
4:36 [m. 168]--The first four bars from 0:15 [m. 11] are played by the piano, but then this material is broken off.  The violin response, the second phrase of urgent music, and the entire violin statement of the theme from 0:31 [m. 21] is omitted.
4:43 [m. 172]--Transition.  It begins in a similar manner to 0:46 [m. 31], but it now follows closely upon the material from which it is derived.  The harmony is changed to remain in the home key.  After only one phrase of the loud, leaping violin octaves, the music moves to an expanded version of the “soaring ascent” from the violin.  This is now accompanied by rapid piano arpeggios beginning off the beat and dovetailing between the hands.
4:53 [m. 180]--At the high point, the extended transition settles down with rapid piano arpeggios plunging downward and a heavily syncopated violin line.  As in the exposition, the violin alone leads into the second theme.
5:04 [m. 187]--Theme 2, which has not been heard for some time, now played in the home key of A major.  The piano plays it, including as before the two-against-three conflict between the hands.  As in the exposition, the violin adds short responses to the end of each phrase.
5:17 [m. 195]--Aggressive dotted rhythms, analogous to 1:29 [m. 59].  The key to which the music veers is C-sharp minor.  The piano settles down with sighing thirds, and again the violin rests.
5:31 [m. 203]--Violin statement of Theme 2, as at 1:43 [m. 67], back in A major.  Rippling piano accompaniment and higher soaring second phrase, as before, with buildup to the next passage.
5:44 [m. 211]--Aggressive dotted rhythms led by the violin, as at 1:57 [m. 75].  They still lead into the closing theme, but there is an unexpected harmonic shift at the end, preparing D major.  Since Brahms is in the home key in the recapitulation, such a shift is unnecessary, but adds variety.
5:51 [m. 215]--Closing theme in the “wrong” key of D major as a result of the preceding unexpected shift.  It proceeds as expected for four bars, first with the piano taking the theme, then the violin taking over.
5:58 [m. 219]--The progress of the closing theme is cut off.  Piano and violin both make a transition into the coda in longer, quieter notes.  The violin plays a slow reminiscence of the lead-in to the closing theme.  The piano plays two slow, downward-arching arpeggios over a steady, static low bass on the note A.
6:12 [m. 227]--The violin line now becomes more directly reminiscent of the aggressive dotted rhythms that led to the closing theme, but the character is completely changed by the presentation in longer note values at a very quiet level.  The passage begins in D major and merges into another downward-arching arpeggio, this time from the violin over a long piano chord and a steady low bass on the note D.
6:25 [m. 235]--The previous passage is repeated at a higher level, now beginning in G major.  The steady bass under the downward-arching arpeggio is also on the note G.
6:39 [m. 243]--Brahms marked this passage vivace, but it begins quietly.  The dotted rhythms are presented beginning in C major and gradually regaining their aggressive character, first in the piano, with arching triplet arpeggios in the left hand, then in the violin with the arpeggios moving to the piano right hand.
6:45 [m. 247]--Another piano statement builds to a high point.  This is also repeated by the violin as the piano briefly plays a downward low bass motion in straight rhythm before again playing in triplets.  The violin statement reaches even higher, then starts to settle down.  The violin plays in thirds with the piano right hand as the music becomes steadily quieter, still in C major.  The left hand plays static downward arpeggios in triplets.  Then there is a slight slowing as well, as the harmony gradually moves back to the home key of A.  The left hand arpeggios begin to reach up from a steady low bass on E, the preparatory “dominant” of A.
7:06 [m. 259]--Theme 1 is serenely stated in A major, opening as it had at the beginning.  The theme is then spun out, with a violin arpeggio reaching upward three times, a step higher each time.  The piano bass holds long, low E’s.  There is then another slowing and a briefly suspended moment of anticipation.
7:23 [m. 268]--The music of the “forceful” transition passage, with elements from 0:46 [m. 30] and 4:43 [m. 172], begins the closing flourish.  The final soaring violin line is accompanied by the fast, dovetailing piano arpeggios heard in the latter passage.  The 3/4 meter remains unambiguous in this ending, unlike previous versions of this material.  The movement ends with a sharp, short chord, then a longer, lower one.
7:49--END OF MOVEMENT [280 mm.]

2nd Movement: Andante tranquillo; Vivace; Andante; Vivace di più; Andante; Vivace (ABA’B’A” form, alternating slow and fast sections, resembling a “double rondo” form).  F MAJOR, 2/4 and 3/4 time.
A Section--Andante tranquillo, 2/4 time.
0:00 [m. 1]--A beautiful contrapuntal dialogue begins between violin and piano, with leisurely and limpidly skipping dotted rhythms.  The piano begins with accompaniment, and the violin follows with the main melody.  The dotted rhythms consist of a long note followed by two shorter ones.  The piano accompaniment trails with this rhythm after the violin presents it in the melody.  Motion to C major.
0:19 [m. 5]--Transitional passage in C major.  The violin spins out a steady series of straight notes.  The piano bass reiterates a low C in syncopated rhythm, while the right hand moves slower than the violin, but generally in the same direction.  Motion back to F major.
0:37 [m. 9]--Return to opening material, with the piano, richly harmonized, now beginning the main melody.  The violin adds new accompanying echoes of the dotted rhythm, then takes over the theme itself halfway through.  It is further developed and spun out.  The original piano dotted rhythms are heard, and the music becomes even more quiet, moving toward an apparent close that is diverted at the end by a deceptive motion to a “hanging” D-minor chord.
B Section--Vivace, 3/4 time.
1:11 [m. 16]--Unusually, the B section is in the same key as the A section, perhaps to compensate for the drastic change in tempo.  The opening passage, which resembles a rustic German dance or “Ländler,” is presented with the piano giving the lead melody over low bass octaves.  The violin provides some accompanying harmonies in the second phrase.
1:19 [m. 24]--The violin takes up the dance-like melody.  The piano accompaniment is light, consisting of short figures on the downbeats.
1:26 [m. 31]--The piano introduces a new, more vigorous tune.  The violin adds two brief decorations to this new melody.
1:33 [m. 37]--The violin takes up the more vigorous tune, later fragmenting it and taking it in a new harmonic direction, to B-flat major/minor.  It is given rich harmonization by the piano.  The tune then breaks into short, light fragments passed between the violin and the piano right hand.
1:38 [m. 43]--The violin begins to play rising two-note groups with several half-steps and chromatic notes, gradually moving up the scale.  These are then taken by the piano.  The piano left hand has moved quite high, and it provides colorful chords to harmonize these two-note groups.  They help facilitate a motion back to F major.  A rapid arpeggio in triplets from the piano left hand leads into the dance tune reprise.
1:45 [m. 49]--The violin plays the original dance tune, now with a cascading arpeggio accompaniment from the piano, played in triplet rhythm.  The right hand supports the arpeggios with chords on the second beat of each bar.  There is now a motion at the end to D minor, the related minor key to F.
1:51 [m. 56]--An extension to the dance tune gains intensity.  The piano arpeggios in the left hand briefly reverse direction, and the right hand also briefly joins the violin on the melody.  At the climax, the cascading arpeggios return, and the music rapidly quiets down again.  The violin figures are reduced to four two-note upward steps.  A halting cadence gesture in D minor is interrupted.
2:00 [m. 65]--The arpeggios resume, and now the two-note violin figures move down a step instead of up.  There are only three of them, and then the “halting” cadence gesture is heard twice (the second time with the violin at a higher level), and broken off both times.  It is then played a third time twice as slowly, the violin reaching still higher (while the piano right hand moves down).  This is interrupted as well, and the full arrival in D minor is not resolved until the slow music returns.
A’ Section--Andante, 2/4 time
2:09 [m. 72]--The anticipation is resolved with the opening A material in D major.  The whole first phrase, without the brief piano lead-in, is played in that key, and the motion at the end is to the analogous A major.
2:26 [m. 76]--Transitional passage from 0:19 [m. 5] beginning in A major.  The piano part is more filled out, especially the left hand, which replaces the low syncopated note repetition with short arpeggios in triplets.  The last two bars shift harmonies and bring the music home to F major.
2:44 [m. 80]--Opening material, now again at home in F major, spun out as at 0:37 [m. 9].  The first bar of the violin part is an octave higher than it was there.
3:09 [m. 85]--Instead of coming to an incomplete close as at the end of the first A section, the music is now further spun out into a very calming, still, and dream-like extension, which reaches a subdued climax before finally settling to the expected incomplete close on a D minor chord, as at 1:11 [mm. 15-16].  The rhythms of both the piano and violin remain constant through most of this extension, becoming only slightly more active at the climax.  The violin part at the ending and incomplete close is an octave lower than before.
B’ Section--Vivace di più, 3/4 time
3:59 [m. 94]--The German dance tune is now varied in an almost skeleton-like form, with the piano playing staccato chords and bass notes (and two syncopated gestures at the end of each phrase) against plucked (pizzicato) chords from the violin.
4:07 [m. 101]--Second statement of the dance tune, with the violin now plucking single notes, mostly on the two weak upbeats, and the piano playing smoother figures passed between the hands.
4:15 [m. 109]--First statement of more vigorous tune, as at 1:26 [m. 31], but now with the violin leading.  The violin taking the tune allows the piano to provide fuller and more sonorous harmonies, including new detached chords under the skittish ending of the tune.  The piano bass is only slightly varied.
4:20 [m. 115]--Second statement of more vigorous tune, with the new turn to B-flat, as at 1:33 [m. 37].  The piano part is varied slightly, and instead of the short fragments being passed between the violin and piano right hand at the end, a full bar of them is played by the violin, then another bar by the piano.
4:26 [m. 121]--In a clever variation of the passage from 1:38 [m. 43], the rising two-note groups are split between plucked violin notes and detached piano octaves.  The piano left hand is unchanged.  At the last bar, with the motion back to F major, the piano takes over, and the rapid left hand triplet arpeggio is heard.
4:31 [m. 127]--Original dance tune, as at 1:45 [m. 49] with cascading piano arpeggios, but again a “skeleton” version, with the violin continuing the weak beat pizzicato notes instead of playing the full dance tune.  The right hand piano chords that punctuate the arpeggios are moved from the second to the third beat of each bar and played in a more detached manner, but the rest of the piano part is unaltered.
4:39 [m. 134]--The violin returns to bowed strings for the buildup of intensity and extension as at 1:51 [m. 56].  This music is unaltered from that presentation, including the four two-note upward violin steps and the interrupted halting cadence gesture.
4:46 [m. 143]--Analogous to 2:00 [m. 65], with the same harmony, but instead of the three downward-moving violin figures, the previous upward-moving ones are moved down an octave (the second one, which repeated the notes of the first, is omitted so that there are still three instead of four).  The piano part is slightly altered to accommodate the lower octave.  The three cadence gestures are all also presented by the violin an octave lower than before, and the first one is on different notes.  The piano plays these in the low octave all three times, not just the slower third one.  As before, the arrival is delayed with great expectation.
A” Section--Andante, 2/4 time
4:55 [m. 150]--The opening material returns, but with richer full chords in the piano, including the brief lead-in.  As with A’, it begins in D major.  The violin part is played an octave higher.  The passage is rearranged and extended by three bars to facilitate an earlier motion back to the home key of F.  This extension includes high syncopated violin notes.
5:33 [m. 157]--The “transitional” passage from 0:19 [m. 5] and 2:26 [m. 76] is greatly altered.  The piano chords are placed in groups of two, and there is an isolated rising violin figure.  It does not lead to a new statement of the opening theme, but directly to the incomplete close on the D minor chord, with slow chords from both instruments.  A” is thus an abbreviated section, as A’ had been somewhat extended.
Coda--Vivace, 3/4 time
5:58 [m. 162]--The “coda” based on the dance-like Vivace material is extremely brief, with the violin playing pizzicato chords before bowing the final two cadential measures.  In character, it resembles the “skeletal” version from B’.  The staccato piano chords grow into an upward-swelling surge before the last three chords.
6:13--END OF MOVEMENT [168 mm.]

3rd Movement: Allegretto grazioso (quasi Andante) (Rondo form).  A MAJOR, Cut time [2/2].
0:00 [m. 1]--First statement of RONDO theme (A), a very warm, singable melody played in the violin's lowest register.  The piano accompanies with chords beginning on the second beat of each bar, resting on the downbeats.  The melody has three phrases.  The second phrase moves to C-sharp minor, but the third restores the home key and comes to a full cadence.  The piano first plays on downbeats at this cadence.
0:20 [m. 12]--At the cadence, the piano introduces a contrasting phrase as the violin drops out.  It is played in full, expressive harmony.  There is then a brief “re-transition” as the violin enters with short rising figures against piano arpeggios.
0:34 [m. 20]--Restatement of the main Rondo melody.  The violin cuts off the downbeat at the beginning, but then restores the original melodic line.  The piano accompaniment is more active, with faster notes beginning off the beat.  Again, the piano does not play on a downbeat until the cadence.  All three phrases of the melody are given in full.
0:53 [m. 32]--FIRST CONTRASTING THEME (B).  This B section is more a transition than a theme.  In comparison to the Rondo theme, it is surprisingly dark and ominous, with rapid piano arpeggios on colorful chords, many of them quite unstable “diminished sevenths.”  The violin plays winding turn figures.  The “theme” does not stay in one key, moving in two waves from A minor to B minor to E minor.  It is mostly played at a quiet level, with small climaxes at the key changes.  When the music does finally somewhat settle on E minor, undulating piano arpeggios under long violin notes take the music to a very quiet level.
1:21 [m. 49]--A long transition begins with high octaves in the piano against low figuration in the violin.  The piano octaves become chords, the right hand following the left after the beat.  The violin figuration becomes slower, resembling the main argument of the B section.  When the music reaches its softest level, the piano chords slow down and become syncopated, or held over strong beats.  The winding violin line reaches a cadence in E major at that point, leading back to A major and the Rondo theme.
1:44 [m. 63]--Second full statement of RONDO theme (A’).  All three phrases are played in full by the violin, but this time the piano accompaniment is more active even than it was at 0:34 [m. 20].  It now constantly undulates between lower single notes and higher thirds, and plays on downbeats throughout.  The hands are largely doubled in octaves for the first two phrases.  This breaks in the third phrase, along with the constant undulation, but the piano remains steadily active until the cadence.
2:03 [m. 74]--The piano again introduces the contrasting phrase, but instead of making a transition to another statement of the Rondo theme, the music gains momentum, becoming harmonically active and developing into a full transition to the second contrasting theme.  Arpeggios in both the piano and the violin develop fragments of the Rondo theme.  These build to a full climax.  At the top, strong left hand chords and arpeggios arrive on F-sharp minor, the relative minor key to A major.
2:30 [m. 90]--SECOND CONTRASTING THEME (C).  It is based on downward-turning arpeggios.  These move faster in the piano (in triplet rhythm, both hands) than in the violin (in straight rhythm).  Two phrases, the second reaching somewhat higher in the violin (F-sharp minor).
2:37 [m. 94]--The F-sharp minor music becomes more active and passionate.  The piano now plays upward arpeggios, still in triplet rhythm, and incorporating block harmonies on some of the notes in the arpeggios.  The violin line includes expressive grace notes (appogiaturas).  The volume level remains quite soft.  Both instruments emerge into two tentative hints at the opening of the C theme, returning to the downward-arching arpeggios.
2:53 [m. 104]--Return of the main C theme.  The piano right hand takes over the straight rhythm on the turning arpeggios from the violin, and the violin adds a new, faster triplet arpeggio against it.  Other than this variation, it is largely presented as before.
3:00 [m. 108]--The active and passionate music begins again, but after two bars, it is cut off.  Two new bars return to the downward-arching arpeggios in the piano and short, sighing two-note figures in the violin.  These bars abruptly move to D major for the return of the Rondo theme.
3:07 [m. 112]--Abrupt motion to the RONDO theme (A”) in a new key (D Major), but in a greatly altered form.  The violin plays decorating triplet figures while the piano plays a harmonized “halting” version of the tune that rests on the downbeats until the last bar of each phrase.  The left hand is very detached and skips downward.  The second phrase moves to F-sharp minor (analogous to the C-sharp minor in the A-major statements).  The third phrase abandons the “halting” version, and the piano plays the original line in octaves.  The cadence is approached, but it is cut off before the final arrival.
3:26 [m. 123]--Abrupt motion to the FIRST CONTRASTING THEME (B’), introduced by a dotted rhythm.  As before, it is dark, ominous, and unstable, moving from D minor to A minor.  Some of the internal pauses between the piano arpeggios are tightened.  The opening dotted rhythm continues to be newly incorporated into the violin line.  The presentation is also more dramatic than the first B section, including several swells in volume that are associated with the dotted rhythm.
3:40 [m. 132]--At the top climax, the music of the passionate sequel to the C theme returns.  The violin briefly returns to D minor, then moves back to A minor as it plays the passionate melody.  The piano plays very rapid arpeggios, dovetailing between the hands.  The music then quickly quiets down.  The piano arpeggios slow down to triplets, then become more separated as chords are held on certain beats.  The violin is reduced to two rising A-minor thirds, with the first note held over bar lines before moving up.
3:52 [m. 137]--Final statement of RONDO theme (A”’), which also serves as a coda.  The violin cuts off the first downbeat, as at 0:34 [m. 20].  The theme lingers on the first phrase as the piano echoes its fourth bar with triplet arpeggios in the left hand.  This fragment is again played by the violin and echoed by the piano over a slight buildup.  The violin then reaches high to play a passionate variant over two-against-three rhythm in the piano.  This quiets down before another implied cadence is aborted.
4:14 [m. 146]--The downward-arching arpeggios from C are unexpectedly incorporated before the violin begins to move completely in rich double-stops (two notes at once), and the piano continues to move in triplets against the violin’s straight groups of two.
4:23 [m. 150]--The material from C moves to the piano left hand.  The violin double-stops then soar again on the main Rondo theme material.  This reaches a final climax over continuing piano triplets.  The warm, full mood continues as the last chords alternate between violin and piano before the final sonorous chord.
4:46--END OF MOVEMENT [158 mm.]