Recording: Itzhak Perlman, violin and Daniel Barenboim, piano (live performance) [Sony SK 45819]
Published 1889.  Dedicated to “his friend” Hans von Bülow.

The third sonata for violin and piano is, unlike the previous two, in four movements.  It was the next chamber work to follow the trilogy of 1887 (which included the second sonata, Op. 100).  A work of extreme concision and drama, it contrasts starkly with the other two sonatas.  The structures are so lean and direct that, despite the “extra” movement, the sonata is no longer than the others.  Although in many ways recalling the passionate exuberance of some of Brahms’s youthful works, its economy of means and direct argument create a work that is a fine example of the latest style.  The structure is somewhat similar to that of the third piano trio, Op. 101, which also has brief middle movements, a dramatic, tightly constructed first movement, and an intense scherzo-like finale.   The first movement begins almost in mid-thought, with no preliminaries to the tragic, insistent main theme.  Its development section is particularly remarkable, being completely built over a constantly and regularly reiterated single note.  The second movement is an instrumental song of great beauty that almost seems too short.  The third movement is similar to other “intermezzo” types Brahms often placed in this position.  It manages to maintain a secretive playfulness despite its minor key.  The finale gives the impression of being romantic and unrestrained, but indeed, it is just as carefully and economically constructed as the rest of the sonata.  As in the other two violin sonatas, the first movement has no exposition repeat.

The recording used in this guide was made from a 1989 live performance in Chicago.

ONLINE SCORE FROM IMSLP (First Edition from Brahms-Institut Lübeck--includes violin part)
ONLINE SCORE FROM IMSLP (from Breitkopf & Härtel Sämtliche Werke--includes violin part)

1st Movement: Allegro (Sonata-Allegro form).  D MINOR, Cut time (2/2).
0:00 [m. 1]--Theme 1.  A highly dramatic tune in the violin that almost seems to start in mid-thought.  It begins with a rising leap of a fourth followed by a turn figure.  A long-short figure in the third measure (with a very short “short” note) will become important throughout the movement.  Against this, the piano plays restless notes alternating between hands, beginning with a distinctive descending figure in wide octaves.  The opening is marked sotto voce, giving the entire theme an unusually quiet intensity.  The piano deviates from, then returns to, the two-octave distance between the hands.
0:15 [m. 12]--Chords in triplet rhythm now alternate with syncopated octaves in the piano (the previous alternation between the hands).  The triplet chords then take over completely.  The violin melody continues and reaches a cadence in A minor/major after a brief return of the opening gesture.
0:35 [m. 25]--Transition.  It begins with sudden loud chords and then develops the opening gesture in both instruments.  The “long-very short” figure gains prominence over quick piano arpeggios (with the two hands “staggered”).
0:48 [m. 34]--Powerful two-note descending gestures in both instruments propel the transition forward.  The piano left hand plays more isolated ascending broken octaves while the right hand decorates its descending gestures with chords and faster intervening notes.  The gestures reverse direction, then the violin drops out, leaving the piano to cascade downward to a half-cadence in F.
0:57 [m. 40]--The closing gesture of the transition passage is played by the violin and piano in F minor, accompanied by wide-ranging arpeggios and then syncopated chords.  The arching figures of this gesture will play a role in the context of Theme 2.
1:09 [m. 48]--Theme 2.  A lyrical melody in the piano with strong accents on weak parts of beats.  The left-hand accompaniment includes wide-ranging leaps, and there are many prominent rolled chords (F Major).
1:23 [m. 56]--The “closing gesture” of the transition passage (from 0:57 [m. 40]) interrupts the lyrical theme.  The violin the enters in counterpoint.
1:33 [m. 62]--Theme 2 is now taken by the violin over continuing piano figuration.  It is slightly expanded and reaches a climax with strong syncopation, which then recedes as the tune arrives at a full cadence.
1:52 [m. 74]--Closing material.  At the cadence, the “closing gesture” from the transition now serves as a closing theme for the exposition.  While now in F major, it retains the distinctive flattened sixth degree from the minor mode.  It is divided between the violin and piano, which also plays an accompaniment of quick arpeggios in a triplet rhythm, alternating descents and ascents.  The exposition closes with a distinct cadence with violin double stops, and Brahms even marks a light double bar in the score.
Brahms sets the entire development section over a constantly repeated low A (called a “pedal point”) at the same quiet level.  A pedal point on A implies a motion to D (the home key), and the longer it is sustained, the greater the tension and anticipation for that motion grows.
2:07 [m. 84]--The pedal point on a low A begins in piano bass.  The violin plays another sotto voce version of Theme 1 in the home key (D minor). It incorporates the piano bass line from the beginning in a sort of “oscillation” between the two elements (the tune and the original piano line) on two strings.  The piano right hand enters after two bars in a sort of “counterpoint” that begins its motion in direct harmony with the violin, but then moves to the turn figure from Theme 1.  The violin spins out new material from the theme.
2:20 [m. 92]--The “long-very short” figure is developed in the violin while the piano right hand plays ominous arpeggios in the middle range of the instrument, including a few double notes.  The passage is centered around A minor and major.
2:26 [m. 96]--Restatement of the preceding version of Theme 1 and the following developmental passage at a higher level (A minor).  The piano right hand participates with its “counterpoint” from the outset of this statement.  The harmony  is altered before 2:38 [m. 104].
2:38 [m. 104]--The “long-very short” figure is heard in the piano left hand over the pedal point.  The violin and the piano right hand take over the arpeggios and “oscillations,” playing mostly in thirds with each other.  The harmony is less stable than at 2:20 [m. 92], moving again to D (but major) and then to E major.
2:44 [m. 108]--There is a brief respite from the active motion.  Three longer descending notes in the violin are played, then repeated at a lower level.  The piano right hand continues the steady, constant arpeggios.  The key moves closer to home, going through F major and again D major.
2:51 [m. 112]--The “long-very short” figure is again heard from the violin.  The harmony moves from F-sharp minor to A major as the piano arpeggios (now again including double notes) and pedal point continue.
2:57 [m. 116]--A long re-transition passage begins, using the three descending notes from 2:44 [m. 108] and then the descending piano bass figure from the beginning of the movement (now in the “upper” voice of the oscillating two-string violin motion).  The piano arpeggios become more repetitive, then they slow down to a wide triplet rhythm.  The tension and anticipation for the repeated A’s to resolve to D is now at its height as the development section quietly settles to its close.  The violin drops out, and the constant motion of the piano right hand is finally broken up into four isolated two-note descents.
3:20 [m. 130]--The end of the long pedal point and the beginning of the reprise almost sneak upon us, as the sotto voce mood continues.  It is similar to the opening of the movement, but the broken octaves of the piano are replaced by a more even and smooth motion in both hands, which move together, but not in octaves.  The anticipated resolution to D minor is not completely confirmed until the second measure.
3:36 [m. 141]--The triplet chords from 0:15 [m. 12] are heard in the piano left hand.  The right hand, rather than participating in the triplet chords, plays arpeggio groups against them in a four-against-three conflict.  At first, these arpeggio groups ascend, but when the triplet chords take over as they had in the exposition, the arpeggio groups descend.  The music moves to the cadence in A minor/major, as in the exposition.
3:57 [m. 154]--The transition passage begins as in the exposition at 0:35 [m. 25], but immediately moves in a new harmonic direction, arriving on F-sharp minor.
4:03 [m. 157]--A new, forceful passage first heard in descending piano octaves is incorporated into the transition.  It continues to incorporate the turn figure from the beginning of Theme 1.  The three-sharp key signature of A major and F-sharp minor is used.  The entire transition is expanded to the point where the “long-very short” figure is heard over the “staggered” piano arpeggios. 
4:24 [m. 172]--The powerful descents are heard as at 0:48 [m. 34].  The transition now follows its course to a half cadence in the home key of D (instead of the F of the exposition).
4:32 [m. 178]--Closing gesture of the transition passage as at 0:57 [m. 40], now in D minor.
4:45 [m. 186]--Theme 2 in a direct transposition to D major
5:00 [m. 194]--The closing gesture of the transition passage interrupts, as at 1:23 [m. 56].  The violin enters in counterpoint.
5:09 [m. 200]--Theme 2 in the violin over continuing piano figuration as at 1:33 [m. 62].  The piano figuration is somewhat altered from the exposition.  A shorter statement than in the exposition, it does not reach a full cadence, but is interrupted earlier by the closing gesture as it hints at F major.
5:23 [m. 208]--As in the exposition at 1:52 [m. 74], the closing gesture is divided between violin and piano, and the piano also plays the quick triplet-rhythm accompaniment, now all in ascents rather than alternating ascents and descents.  Rather than settling to a cadence, however, it goes the other direction and builds, culminating in the forceful descending passage from the new transition (from 4:03 [m. 157]).
5:38 [m. 218]--Unlike the exposition, the recapitulation is rounded with another nearly full statement of Theme 1, now aggressive and dynamic.  The descending piano line, broken between the hands as at the beginning, is now in full harmony.
5:54 [m. 229]--The triplet chords enter as expected, but the statement of Theme 1 is truncated at this point and quickly diminishes in volume as it approaches the familiar cadence, now in the home key of D instead of A (as at 0:15 [m. 12] and 3:36 [m. 141]).
6:07 [m. 236]--The final cadence of the recapitulation merges into the coda, which, surprisingly, mirrors the development section.  A new pedal point begins, but now it is on D instead of A.  The two-string oscillation between Theme 1 and the opening bass line is heard, as at the opening of the development, along with the entry of the right-hand counterpoint and the turn figure (now also heard in the piano bass).  The passage follows the beginning of the development somewhat closely, but does not incorporate the “long-very short” figure.  Also, the pedal point on the keynote D does not have the sense of tension and anticipation as the one on A had.
6:28 [m. 248]--The piano right hand now plays gentle double notes (sixths) in both the major and minor modes.  The three descending notes from the end of the development section at 2:44 [m. 108] are heard in the violin in two descending sequential statements.
6:39 [m. 254]--The music slows on a descending violin line.  The pedal point is broken and the bass note moves as two anticipatory rests are reached in both instruments.
6:51 [m. 258]--The closing measures magically transform the opening gesture of Theme 1.  The initial rising fourth swells in volume and the following turn figure is heard three times, each an octave lower than the last.  These are passed down the strings and dovetail each other while settling back down to a quiet dynamic.  They continue to suggest D minor as the full harmonies of the piano (beginning with strong syncopation) move to D major.  Resolution finally arrives as the piano plays a slow D major arpeggio in triplet rhythm under three repeated low A’s from the violin.  The final major chord is very serene.
7:23--END OF MOVEMENT [264 mm.]

2nd Movement: Adagio (Binary form, with statement and expanded counterstatement).  D MAJOR, 3/8 time.
First statement
0:00 [m. 1]--Theme 1.  A beautiful, rich melody played in the violin’s lower register.  The melody is characterized by a long note followed by three shorter ones.  The piano plays steadily on each beat of the slow triple meter.  The left hand is largely in octaves.  Near the first cadence, it becomes mildly syncopated, tying two chords over bar lines.  At the weak cadence, the piano imitates the violin.
0:45 [m. 13]--The continuation of the melody moves strongly to A major (already suggested at the end of the preceding passage).  The piano becomes more active, adding an moving internal voice that harmonizes with the bass.  The piano bass has a bar line-crossing syncopation at the cadence.
1:08 [m. 19]--Theme 2 (A major).  The strong cadence merges into an upward winding passage from the violin over two-note piano descents.  It rapidly increases in volume and culminates in a very warm descending series of minor-tinged double-stop thirds in the violin against rolled chords in the piano.  The music quickly settles back down.
1:29 [m. 25]--Transitional passage.  The violin’s double-stop thirds merge into a repeated neighbor-note figure in a dotted rhythm.  The piano plays a three-chord figure with the first chord leaping down to a repeated chord.   This is similar to its accompaniment pattern at the opening of the movement.
1:43 [m. 29]--The violin and piano reverse roles.  The piano has the dotted rhythm, now in chords, and the violin plays three-note downward leaps similar to the piano’s chords.  There follows a hemiola, with the leaping violin line  and the piano chords grouped as if two 3/8 bars were a single 3/4 bar.  The piano alone then uses both elements to lead back to D major for the counterstatement.
Expanded counterstatement
2:14 [m. 37]--Theme 1.  The piano right hand now doubles the violin in the melody while the left hand plays detached arpeggios in triplet rhythm (three notes to a beat).  The statement is significantly stronger than the opening of the movement.  Doubling ends after four measures, and the music becomes more quiet.  A small expansion happens right before the first weak cadence, which is now in G major instead of D.
2:45 [m. 47]--The passage from 0:45 [m. 13] is abbreviated, now only serving to quickly reconfirm D major after the weak cadence in G.  The triplet arpeggios in the left hand become spaced out by a beat and then stop.  The piano bass has the bar line-crossing syncopation previously heard before Theme 2.
2:59 [m. 51]--Theme 2 (D major).  The strong cadence is analogous to that at 1:08 [m. 19], leading to a statement of the upward rising passage with piano descents and the descending double thirds with rolled chords, all now in the home key.
3:20 [m. 57]--The transition is now replaced by a passage of intensification.  A winding figure in the violin, played over piano chords with the hands in contrary motion, gains intensity and speed, culminating in an expanded, rapturous statement of the descending double thirds without the minor-key flavor.  This is the climax of the movement, and arrives over faster arpeggios and low bass octaves in the piano.  The descending thirds and the piano arpeggios slowly settle down.
3:39 [m. 63]--A new transitional passage emerges, consisting of oscillating leaps and double sixths in the violin against arpeggio fragments and low bass broken octaves in the piano.  A violin trill leads into the final Theme 1 statement.
3:55 [m. 67]--Final statement of Theme 1.  Only the first two measures are heard before the final, resonant piano chords (which rise to the high register before the two last lower chords) and low violin notes  The violin has a long double stop over the rising piano chords, then “pre-emphasizes” the cadence on the final notes with an anticipatory grace note.
4:42--END OF MOVEMENT [75 mm.]

3rd Movement: Un poco presto e con sentimento  (Ternary form, with middle section derived from main material).  F-SHARP MINOR, 2/4 time.
A Section
0:00 [m. 1]--The opening gesture in piano octaves provides most material for this monothematic movement.  The two repeated notes, the jump up a third and back to them, and the descending three-note figure created when that third is filled in are the important elements.  Violin double stops punctuate the gesture, mostly on weak beats.  The music is secretive and quiet.
0:04 [m. 5]--The opening gesture is modified to wind down to a lower pitch level.
0:07 [m. 9]--The two repeated notes continue to develop.  A rapidly descending piano arpeggio is heard, and the left hand of the piano, nearly absent until now, begins to assert itself with punctuating chords and octaves that are heard together with the violin double stops.
0:14 [m. 17]--The descending piano arpeggio is adapted to longer descending notes in the violin, which finally abandons its punctuating double stops.  After two statements of this phrase with different harmonies, a cadence in C-sharp minor is reached.
0:21 [m. 26]--A brief piano bridge with short-long descents and detached bass octaves brings the music back home to F-sharp minor.
0:25 [m. 29]--Varied statement of the entire passage to the C-sharp minor cadence.  The violin now takes the lead with the figures previously heard in piano octaves.  The piano plays light arpeggios, first descending and later ascending, where the violin double stops had been.  The left hand introduces a strong descending scale figure in detached notes.
0:38 [m. 45]--Corresponds to 0:14 [m. 17].  Here, the violin resumes its original role where it had previously abandoned the double stops.  The piano now plays upward instead of downward sweeping arpeggios as the C-sharp minor cadence is reached.
B section
0:45 [m. 54]--The brief piano bridge from 0:21 [m. 26] is replaced with a suddenly animated transition passage in which the violin and piano both play arpeggios, erupt in triplet rhythm, and move harmonically toward D minor.
0:54 [m. 65]--A sudden and almost violent series of violin triple stops and off-beat piano chords leads to a strong cadence in A minor.
0:57 [m. 70]--The triple stops and piano chords are followed by a more urgent statement of the main gesture in A minor, heard from the piano under longer violin double stops.  The violin figures emerge into a line that runs in counterpoint to the main melody in the piano.
1:03 [m. 76]--The passage from 0:45 [m. 54] is adapted with some directional changes and instrument role reversals.  It now moves toward B-flat minor.
1:12 [m. 87]--The passage from 0:54 [m. 65] is adapted with the instruments reversing roles and moving to a cadence in F minor (B-flat--F is analogous to D--A).
1:15 [m. 91]--Urgent statement of the main gesture, as at 0:57 [m. 70], now in F minor.  The violin now has the gesture itself in double stops (continuing the role reversal from 1:12 [m. 87]), and the piano plays flowing triplets, ascending in the left hand and descending in the right.
1:21 [m. 98]--An upward piano arpeggio in double notes suddenly shifts to major, decreases in volume, and leads to a surprisingly tender violin statement of the main gesture in F major.  The piano plays an equally gentle adaptation of the descending three-note figure from that gesture three times under the violin until that instrument plays it in its “original” position.  There, the piano moves to a more directly harmonizing role before a cadence.
1:30 [m. 106]--The re-transition uses the three-note descending figure to move first back to F minor and then to the home key of F-sharp minor.  The violin leads back home over slow piano chords and long bass notes, and then the piano plays a final, highly expressive and chromatic bridge (taking over from a violin descent), all over a slowing tempo.
A’ Section
1:47 [m. 119]--Restatement of the opening music, with the violin double stops now played pizzicato (plucked).
2:01 [m. 135]--Corresponds at the beginning to 0:14 [m. 17] and 0:38 [m. 45].  The violin takes the bow again for its descending figure.  The passage is altered (specifically the second statement of the phrase) to cadence at home in F-sharp minor rather than C-sharp minor.
2:08 [m. 144]--The material of the piano bridge from 0:21 [m. 26] leads into a passionate extension of the F-sharp minor cadence in violin double stops and sweeping piano arpeggios.  This extension quiets as the piano's notes become longer (triplet groupings).
2:20 [m. 155]--The violin’s restatement of the main section from 0:25 [m. 29] is replaced by an atmospheric coda.  That instrument muses extensively on the opening repeated notes entirely in double stops as the piano plays light arpeggio fragments and isolated bass notes.  There are two waves of this material, each one very slightly increasing in intensity before backing off.
2:34 [m. 169]--The double stops are briefly abandoned at the end of the second “wave” as the violin approaches an arpeggio flourish that matches the light piano arpeggios.  The piano arpeggios themselves soar upward and drop out as the violin reaches the top and then descends.
2:40 [m. 175]--The violin resumes double stops for final cadence.  The piano’s final downward flourish under a sustained violin double stop includes the descending bass scale figure from 0:25 [m. 29], now broken over five octaves.  Two quiet clinching rolled chords have their top notes doubled by the violin.
2:48--END OF MOVEMENT [181 mm.]

4th Movement: Presto agitato (Sonata-Rondo form).  D MINOR, 6/8 time.
0:00 [m. 1]--In the brief, but powerful introduction, the piano anticipates the main theme with full chords and bass octaves while the violin has a rapidly oscillating line that seems to be almost “sawed” with the bow.
0:04 [m. 5]--Theme 1.  A soaring, dramatic violin line is played against oscillating piano chords similar to the violin “sawing” at the beginning.  The bass has broken octaves in consistent groupings of three notes with an up-down motion.  The theme consists of an initial downward leap in longer notes followed by an arching line.  This is given twice, the second time reaching higher in the arching line.  The D-minor melody has a strong pull toward A minor.
0:10 [m. 13]--The introduction is repeated beginning a fourth higher and ending with a new, stronger half-cadence.
0:14 [m. 17]--Transition.  “Galloping” figures are passed between the piano and violin.  They are interrupted twice by loud outbursts of the head motive from Theme 1, also passed from piano to violin.  After the second interruption, the music of the “galloping” figures makes a strong turn to A minor.
0:25 [m. 29]--A third outburst of the Theme 1 music is extended by a descent in the piano right hand.  This descent in duple rhythm goes against the prevailing 6/8 flow.  The piano line diminishes to soft chords, and the violin enters with soft double stops.  Two descending low piano notes lead to Theme 2.
0:35 [m. 39]--Theme 2 (C major/A minor).  A noble melody in richly harmonized piano chords with an active bass.  The theme, which begins in C major, makes a very dark turn toward E minor before the violin makes a brief entrance.  The following chords trail down and strongly suggest a cadence in E minor that does not arrive.
0:52 [m. 55]--In a sudden and unprepared return to C major, averting the expected E-minor cadence, the violin repeats and varies the theme over continuing rich piano chords that become more and more syncopated.  Through an alteration incorporating a new rising leap, the violin redirects the dark turn so that it will work toward A minor rather than E minor.  This statement swells and recedes, and the A- minor cadence is interrupted, then delayed with tension-filled, breathless rests before the hushed arrival.
1:09 [m. 73]--Closing section (A minor).  It begins with quietly running piano figures that wind upward, then come rapidly down in an arpeggio.  The music continues with passionate material derived from Theme 1.  The piano has low bass octaves that seem to march upward while the right hand plays undulating up-down figures under the violin’s melodic line. The motion is temporarily somewhat arrested by questioning violin gestures with short piano responses in rising thirds with octave and chord support.
1:19 [m. 84]--The passionate melody begins again in the violin, cutting off the questioning gestures a bar earlier than expected.  The piano imitates the melody after one last rising third figure under the violin entry.  The piano then takes over the actual melody and the violin continues in anticipatory, rather than imitative counterpoint.  The up-down figures move to the left hand.  The melody is extended and intensified, culminating in the piano’s statements of the “questioning gestures” with violin imitation a fifth higher.
1: 30 [m. 96]--The closing section continues with syncopated chords on weak beats.  The violin joins the piano on these exciting syncopations, which begin quietly and rapidly increase in volume and tension.  The piano left hand has broken octaves on the strong beats.  After a series of octave leaps, the syncopations culminate in two strong cadence gestures that continue to obscure the beat.  These are echoed by the piano without the violin.
1:41 [m. 108]--Music from the opening of the closing section at 1:09 [m. 73] returns with the piano imitating, then doubling the violin.  It is extended and metrically displaced.  The material is abruptly cut off after the descending arpeggio.
DEVELOPMENT (Restatement and expansion of Theme 1 material).
1:46 [m. 114]--Brief introduction from the beginning starting in A minor, then shifting abruptly at the end to the home key of D minor.
1:49 [m. 118]--Theme 1, as at 0:04 [m. 5], with very slight, subtle alterations to the piano part, including a new low bass broken octave at the second statement of the melodic line.
1:56 [m. 126]--Repetition of introduction a fourth higher, as at 0:10 [m. 13], but it is extended by four abruptly quiet, isolated middle-range piano chords in the second half of each bar.
2:05 [m. 134]--An expressive variant of Theme 1 begins in G minor.  It has fewer notes and is accompanied by continuing isolated mid-range piano chords on the weak half of the bar.  The violin melody starts to become syncopated, and slides upward.
2:13 [m. 142]--The expressive statement dissolves into a long passage of syncopation in the violin with theme fragments in the piano.  It begins in B-flat minor.
2:19 [m. 148]--The piano right hand abandons the expressive theme fragments and joins the violin in an extended, highly syncopated passage with most notes coming on the “weakest” beats.  The left hand now plays theme fragments in octaves in C-sharp minor.  There is then a turn to E major.
2:29 [m. 156]--The syncopated passage continues without theme fragments.  The music intensifies, with the violin climbing chromatically (in half-steps) then jumping an octave and continuing the ascent.  The half-steps are broken twice by skips.  The bass octaves and the violin ascent are no longer syncopated, but the right hand chords retain the heavy syncopation.  The harmony is unstable, and moves through F-sharp minor and A major before turning back to C-sharp/D-flat.  Finally, it reaches F minor.
2:39 [m. 168]--The violin ascent speeds up, joins the piano on the heavy syncopation, and moves purely by half-steps until it reaches an oscillation on a very high F and G-flat.  There is a great intensification.
2:43 [m. 172]--The syncopated passage culminates in a high statement of Theme 1 with a clashing duple rhythm in the piano octaves.  It reaches a strong cadence in F minor.
2:46 [m. 176]--There is now more syncopation in an extremely agitated passage beginning in F minor and closing the development section (which has been entirely devoted to Theme 1).  The violin plays a passionate line against rushing, perpetually moving piano figuration.  The music is somewhat reminiscent of the transition passage from the exposition, into which it leads.
2:56 [m. 187]--The agitated passage continues, wrenching itself to the home key of D, here in a major/minor mixture.  It flows directly into the transition passage, picking up from the presentation of Theme 1 at the beginning of the development section.
3:02 [m. 194]--Transition with galloping figures, as at 0:14 [m. 17].  They now have fuller harmony.  The first statement of the Theme 1 outburst is the same as in the exposition.  The second one is altered, reaching higher so that the music can remain in the home key of D minor.
3:13 [m. 206]--The third outburst of the Theme 1 music (from 0:25 [m. 29]) is replaced with further intensification of the galloping figures and a two-bar extension with a fully harmonized ascending piano arpeggio.  This leads to the right hand descent in duple meter as previously heard before Theme 2.  Soft chords and double stops follow, and the two low bass notes lead into Theme 2.
3:25 [m. 218]--Theme 2.  The noble melody and chords begin in F major (“relative” to D minor) and make the “dark turn” to A minor.  The violin enters briefly, as it had before.  The trailing chords suggest a cadence in A minor that is aborted, as was the E-minor arrival in the exposition.
3:41 [m. 234]--In an unprepared return to F major, the violin repeats and varies the second theme over continuing piano chords, which become syncopated, as at 0:52 [m. 55].  The “dark turn” now arrives in D minor (the home key).  The cadence is interrupted and delayed with rests, as it was before, and reaches a hushed arrival.
3:58 [m. 252]--Closing section, as at 1:09 [m. 73] with running piano figures, passionate violin melody, and questioning gestures with piano responses.  It is now in the home key of D minor.
4:08 [m. 263]--The passionate melody begins again in the violin, imitated by the piano, as at 1:19 [m. 84].  The piano again plays the actual melody with expansion, intensification, and statements of the “questioning gestures.”
4:19 [m. 275]--The closing section continues with syncopated chords, as at 1:30 [m. 96].  They again arrive at two strong cadence gestures from the violin, which are then echoed by the piano.
4:30 [m. 287]--Music from opening of the closing section returns, as at 1:41 [m. 108].  It is extended and metrically displaced, then cut off after the arpeggio.
4:35 [m. 293]--Brief introduction, as at very beginning.
4:39 [m. 297]--A very passionate statement of Theme 1, with altered accompaniment in the second statement.  The broken octaves are replaced by more solid straight octaves, and the right hand chords are also changed somewhat.  The second statement is extended by a large scale descent, beginning with the violin.  The piano enters in harmony with the descending violin scale, then adds a double third harmony to its own scale, creating full chords with the violin line.  The piano scales are doubled in both hands.
4:47 [m. 307]--Final statement of the “brief introduction,” beginning on B-flat, but moving quickly to the harmonies as heard in the statement at 0:10 [m. 13] with the strong half-cadence.
4:51 [m. 311]--Another extremely agitated passage begins with a huge piano arpeggio doubled in two, then three octaves and turning back down.  The music of the “galloping” transition follows, and then the huge arpeggio is repeated.
4:57 [m. 317]--Solid descending chords lead to more of the “galloping” transition material, still in an extremely agitated, passionate presentation and including some chromatic notes.
5:04 [m. 325]--The music suddenly becomes broad and sustained, with Theme 1 in the piano bass and then the violin.  The piano right hand has the familiar chord and single note oscillations.  The violin statement of the Theme 1 material is extended downward, and the music both slows down and becomes quiet to maximize the effect of the coming dramatic gesture.
5:15 [m. 331]--The final flourish enters suddenly, and is based on the transition material.  The piano shoots upward in harmonized arpeggios, which dovetail with violin continuations.  A rapid descending piano arpeggio, with a punctuating violin chord and final note (D), closes the movement in the stern minor key in which it began.
5:23--END OF MOVEMENT [337 mm.]