VIOLIN SONATA NO. 3 in D MINOR, OP. 108
Recording: Itzhak Perlman, violin and Daniel Barenboim, piano (live
performance) [Sony SK 45819]
Dedicated to “his friend” Hans von Bülow.
The third sonata for
violin and piano is, unlike the previous two, in four movements.
It was the next chamber work to follow the trilogy of 1887 (which
included the second sonata, Op. 100). A work of extreme concision
and drama, it contrasts starkly with the other two sonatas. The
structures are so lean and direct that, despite the “extra” movement,
the sonata is no longer than the others. Although in many ways
recalling the passionate exuberance of some of Brahms’s youthful works,
its economy of means and direct argument create a work that is a fine
example of the latest style. The structure is somewhat similar to
that of the third piano trio, Op. 101, which also has brief middle
movements, a dramatic, tightly constructed first movement, and an
intense scherzo-like finale. The first movement begins
almost in mid-thought, with no preliminaries to the tragic, insistent
main theme. Its development section is particularly remarkable,
being completely built over a constantly and regularly reiterated
single note. The second movement is an instrumental song of great
beauty that almost seems too short. The third movement is similar
to other “intermezzo” types Brahms often placed in this position.
It manages to maintain a secretive playfulness despite its minor
key. The finale gives the impression of being romantic and
unrestrained, but indeed, it is just as carefully and economically
constructed as the rest of the sonata. As in the other two violin
sonatas, the first movement has no exposition repeat.
The recording used in this guide was made from a 1989 live performance
SCORE FROM IMSLP (First Edition from Brahms-Institut
Lübeck--includes violin part)
SCORE FROM IMSLP (from Breitkopf &
Härtel Sämtliche Werke--includes
Movement: Allegro (Sonata-Allegro form). D MINOR, Cut time (2/2).
0:00 [m. 1]--Theme 1. A
highly dramatic tune in the violin that
almost seems to start in mid-thought. It begins with a rising
leap of a fourth followed by a turn figure. A long-short figure
in the third measure (with a very short “short” note) will become
important throughout the movement. Against this, the piano plays
restless notes alternating between hands, beginning with a distinctive
descending figure in wide octaves. The opening is marked sotto voce, giving the entire theme
an unusually quiet intensity. The piano deviates from, then
returns to, the two-octave distance between the hands.
0:15 [m. 12]--Chords in triplet
rhythm now alternate with syncopated
octaves in the piano (the previous alternation between the
hands). The triplet chords then take over completely. The
violin melody continues and reaches a cadence in A minor/major after a
brief return of the opening gesture.
0:35 [m. 25]--Transition.
It begins with sudden loud chords and
then develops the opening gesture in both instruments. The
“long-very short” figure gains prominence over quick piano arpeggios
(with the two hands “staggered”).
0:48 [m. 34]--Powerful two-note
descending gestures in both instruments
propel the transition forward. The piano left hand plays more
isolated ascending broken octaves while the right hand decorates its
descending gestures with chords and faster intervening notes. The
gestures reverse direction, then the violin drops out, leaving the
piano to cascade downward to a half-cadence in F.
0:57 [m. 40]--The closing
gesture of the transition passage is played
by the violin and piano in F minor, accompanied by wide-ranging
arpeggios and then syncopated chords. The arching figures of this
gesture will play a role in the context of Theme 2.
1:09 [m. 48]--Theme 2. A
lyrical melody in the piano with strong
accents on weak parts of beats. The left-hand accompaniment
includes wide-ranging leaps, and there are many prominent rolled chords
1:23 [m. 56]--The “closing
gesture” of the transition passage (from
0:57 [m. 40]) interrupts the lyrical theme. The violin the enters
1:33 [m. 62]--Theme 2 is now
taken by the violin over continuing piano figuration. It is
slightly expanded and reaches a climax with
strong syncopation, which then recedes as the tune arrives at a full
1:52 [m. 74]--Closing
material. At the cadence, the “closing
gesture” from the transition now serves as a closing theme for the
exposition. While now in F major, it retains the distinctive
flattened sixth degree from the minor mode. It is divided between
the violin and piano, which also plays an accompaniment of quick
arpeggios in a triplet rhythm, alternating descents and ascents.
The exposition closes with a
distinct cadence with violin double stops, and Brahms even marks a
light double bar in the score.
Brahms sets the entire development section over a constantly repeated
low A (called a “pedal point”) at the same quiet level. A pedal
point on A implies a motion to D (the home key), and the longer it is
sustained, the greater the tension and anticipation for that motion
2:07 [m. 84]--The pedal point
on a low A begins in piano bass.
The violin plays another sotto voce
version of Theme 1 in the home key
(D minor). It incorporates the piano bass line from the beginning in a
sort of “oscillation” between the two elements (the tune and the
original piano line) on two strings. The piano right hand enters
after two bars in a sort of “counterpoint” that begins its motion in
direct harmony with the violin, but then moves to the turn figure from
Theme 1. The violin spins out new material from the theme.
2:20 [m. 92]--The “long-very
short” figure is developed in the violin
while the piano right hand plays ominous arpeggios in the middle range
of the instrument, including a few double notes. The passage is
centered around A minor and major.
2:26 [m. 96]--Restatement of
the preceding version of Theme 1 and the
following developmental passage at a higher level (A minor). The
piano right hand participates with its “counterpoint” from the outset
of this statement. The harmony is altered before 2:38 [m.
2:38 [m. 104]--The “long-very
short” figure is heard in the piano left
hand over the pedal point. The violin and the piano right hand
take over the arpeggios and “oscillations,” playing mostly in thirds
with each other. The harmony is less stable than at 2:20 [m. 92],
moving again to D (but major) and then to E major.
2:44 [m. 108]--There is a brief
respite from the active motion.
Three longer descending notes in the violin are played, then repeated
at a lower level. The piano right hand continues the steady,
constant arpeggios. The key moves closer to home, going through F
major and again D major.
2:51 [m. 112]--The “long-very
short” figure is again heard from the
violin. The harmony moves from F-sharp minor to A major as the
piano arpeggios (now again including double notes) and pedal point
2:57 [m. 116]--A long
re-transition passage begins, using the three
descending notes from 2:44 [m. 108] and then the descending piano bass
figure from the beginning of the movement (now in the “upper” voice of
the oscillating two-string violin motion). The piano arpeggios
become more repetitive, then they slow down to a wide triplet
rhythm. The tension and anticipation for the repeated A’s to
resolve to D is now at its height as the development section quietly
settles to its close. The violin drops out, and the constant
motion of the piano right hand is finally broken up into four isolated
3:20 [m. 130]--The end of the
long pedal point and the beginning of the
reprise almost sneak upon us, as the sotto
voce mood continues.
It is similar to the opening of the movement, but the broken octaves of
the piano are replaced by a more even and smooth motion in both hands,
which move together, but not in octaves. The anticipated
resolution to D minor is not completely confirmed until the second
3:36 [m. 141]--The triplet
chords from 0:15 [m. 12] are heard in the
piano left hand. The right hand, rather than participating in the
triplet chords, plays arpeggio groups against them in a
four-against-three conflict. At first, these arpeggio groups
ascend, but when the triplet chords take over as they had in the
exposition, the arpeggio groups descend. The music moves to the
cadence in A minor/major, as in the exposition.
3:57 [m. 154]--The transition
passage begins as in the exposition at
0:35 [m. 25], but immediately moves in a new harmonic direction,
arriving on F-sharp minor.
4:03 [m. 157]--A new, forceful
passage first heard in descending piano
octaves is incorporated into the transition. It continues to
incorporate the turn figure from the beginning of Theme 1. The
three-sharp key signature of A major and F-sharp minor is used.
The entire transition is expanded to the point where the “long-very
short” figure is heard over the “staggered” piano arpeggios.
4:24 [m. 172]--The powerful
descents are heard as at 0:48 [m.
34]. The transition now follows its course to a half cadence in
the home key of D (instead of the F of the exposition).
4:32 [m. 178]--Closing gesture
of the transition passage as at 0:57 [m.
40], now in D minor.
4:45 [m. 186]--Theme 2 in a
direct transposition to D major
5:00 [m. 194]--The closing
gesture of the transition passage
interrupts, as at 1:23 [m. 56]. The violin enters in counterpoint.
5:09 [m. 200]--Theme 2 in the
violin over continuing piano figuration as at
1:33 [m. 62]. The piano figuration is somewhat altered from the
exposition. A shorter statement than in the exposition, it does
not reach a full cadence, but is interrupted earlier by the closing
gesture as it hints at F major.
5:23 [m. 208]--As in the
exposition at 1:52 [m. 74], the closing
gesture is divided between violin and piano, and the piano also plays
the quick triplet-rhythm accompaniment, now all in ascents rather than
alternating ascents and descents. Rather than settling to a
cadence, however, it goes the other direction and builds, culminating
in the forceful descending passage from the new transition (from 4:03
5:38 [m. 218]--Unlike the
exposition, the recapitulation is rounded
with another nearly full statement of Theme 1, now aggressive and
dynamic. The descending piano line, broken between the hands as
at the beginning, is now in full harmony.
5:54 [m. 229]--The triplet
chords enter as expected, but the statement
of Theme 1 is truncated at this point and quickly diminishes in volume
as it approaches the familiar cadence, now in the home key of D instead
of A (as at 0:15 [m. 12] and 3:36 [m. 141]).
6:07 [m. 236]--The final
cadence of the recapitulation merges into the
coda, which, surprisingly, mirrors the development section. A new
pedal point begins, but now it is on D instead of A. The
two-string oscillation between Theme 1 and the opening bass line is
heard, as at the opening of the development, along with the entry of
the right-hand counterpoint and the turn figure (now also heard in the
piano bass). The passage follows the beginning of the development
somewhat closely, but does not incorporate the “long-very short”
figure. Also, the pedal point on the keynote D does not have the
sense of tension and anticipation as the one on A had.
6:28 [m. 248]--The piano right
hand now plays gentle double notes
(sixths) in both the major and minor modes. The three descending
notes from the end of the development section at 2:44 [m. 108] are
heard in the violin in two descending sequential statements.
6:39 [m. 254]--The music slows
on a descending violin line. The
pedal point is broken and the bass note moves as two anticipatory rests
are reached in both instruments.
6:51 [m. 258]--The closing
measures magically transform the opening
gesture of Theme 1. The initial rising fourth swells in volume
and the following turn figure is heard three times, each an octave
lower than the last. These are passed down the strings and
dovetail each other while settling back down to a quiet dynamic.
They continue to suggest D minor as the full harmonies of the piano
(beginning with strong syncopation) move to D major. Resolution
finally arrives as the piano plays a slow D major arpeggio in triplet
rhythm under three repeated low A’s from the violin. The final
major chord is very serene.
7:23--END OF MOVEMENT [264 mm.]
2nd Movement: Adagio (Binary form,
with statement and expanded counterstatement). D MAJOR, 3/8 time.
0:00 [m. 1]--Theme 1. A
beautiful, rich melody played in the violin’s lower register. The
melody is characterized by a long note followed by three shorter
ones. The piano plays steadily on each beat of the slow triple
meter. The left hand is largely in octaves. Near the first
cadence, it becomes mildly syncopated, tying two chords over bar
lines. At the weak cadence, the piano imitates the violin.
0:45 [m. 13]--The continuation
of the melody moves strongly to A major (already suggested at the end
of the preceding passage). The piano becomes more active, adding
an moving internal voice that harmonizes with the bass. The piano
bass has a bar line-crossing syncopation at the cadence.
1:08 [m. 19]--Theme 2 (A
major). The strong cadence merges into an upward winding passage
from the violin over two-note piano descents. It rapidly
increases in volume and culminates in a very warm descending series of
minor-tinged double-stop thirds in the violin against rolled chords in
the piano. The music quickly settles back down.
1:29 [m. 25]--Transitional
passage. The violin’s double-stop thirds merge into a repeated
neighbor-note figure in a dotted rhythm. The piano plays a
three-chord figure with the first chord leaping down to a repeated
chord. This is similar to its accompaniment pattern at the
opening of the movement.
1:43 [m. 29]--The violin and
piano reverse roles. The piano has the dotted rhythm, now in
chords, and the violin plays three-note downward leaps similar to the
piano’s chords. There follows a hemiola,
with the leaping violin line and the piano chords grouped as if
two 3/8 bars were a single 3/4 bar. The piano alone then uses
both elements to lead back to D major for the counterstatement.
2:14 [m. 37]--Theme 1.
The piano right hand now doubles the violin in the melody while the
left hand plays detached arpeggios in triplet rhythm (three notes to a
beat). The statement is significantly stronger than the opening
of the movement. Doubling ends after four measures, and the music
becomes more quiet. A small expansion happens right before the
first weak cadence, which is now in G major instead of D.
2:45 [m. 47]--The passage from
0:45 [m. 13] is abbreviated, now only serving to quickly reconfirm D
major after the weak cadence in G. The triplet arpeggios in the
left hand become spaced out by a beat and then stop. The piano
bass has the bar line-crossing syncopation previously heard before
2:59 [m. 51]--Theme 2 (D
major). The strong cadence is analogous to that at 1:08 [m. 19],
leading to a statement of the upward rising passage with piano descents
and the descending double thirds with rolled chords, all now in the
3:20 [m. 57]--The transition is
now replaced by a passage of intensification. A winding figure in
the violin, played over piano chords with the hands in contrary motion,
gains intensity and speed, culminating in an expanded, rapturous
statement of the descending double thirds without the minor-key
flavor. This is the climax of the movement, and arrives over
faster arpeggios and low bass octaves in the piano. The
descending thirds and the piano arpeggios slowly settle down.
3:39 [m. 63]--A new
transitional passage emerges, consisting of oscillating leaps and
double sixths in the violin against arpeggio fragments and low bass
broken octaves in the piano. A violin trill leads into the final
Theme 1 statement.
3:55 [m. 67]--Final statement
of Theme 1. Only the first two measures are heard before the
final, resonant piano chords (which rise to the high register before
the two last lower chords) and low violin notes The violin has a
long double stop over the rising piano chords, then “pre-emphasizes”
the cadence on the final notes with an anticipatory grace note.
4:42--END OF MOVEMENT [75 mm.]
3rd Movement: Un poco presto e con
sentimento (Ternary form, with middle section derived from main
material). F-SHARP MINOR, 2/4 time.
0:00 [m. 1]--The opening
gesture in piano octaves provides most material for this monothematic
movement. The two repeated notes, the jump up a third and back to
them, and the descending three-note figure created when that third is
filled in are the important elements. Violin double stops
punctuate the gesture, mostly on weak beats. The music is
secretive and quiet.
0:04 [m. 5]--The opening
gesture is modified to wind down to a lower pitch level.
0:07 [m. 9]--The two repeated
notes continue to develop. A rapidly descending piano arpeggio is
heard, and the left hand of the piano, nearly absent until now, begins
to assert itself with punctuating chords and octaves that are heard
together with the violin double stops.
0:14 [m. 17]--The descending
piano arpeggio is adapted to longer descending notes in the violin,
which finally abandons its punctuating double stops. After two
statements of this phrase with different harmonies, a cadence in
C-sharp minor is reached.
0:21 [m. 26]--A brief piano
bridge with short-long descents and detached bass octaves brings the
music back home to F-sharp minor.
0:25 [m. 29]--Varied statement
of the entire passage to the C-sharp minor cadence. The violin
now takes the lead with the figures previously heard in piano
octaves. The piano plays light arpeggios, first descending and
later ascending, where the violin double stops had been. The left
hand introduces a strong descending scale figure in detached notes.
0:38 [m. 45]--Corresponds to
0:14 [m. 17]. Here, the violin resumes its original role where it
had previously abandoned the double stops. The piano now plays
upward instead of downward sweeping arpeggios as the C-sharp minor
cadence is reached.
0:45 [m. 54]--The brief piano
bridge from 0:21 [m. 26] is replaced with a suddenly animated
transition passage in which the violin and piano both play arpeggios,
erupt in triplet rhythm, and move harmonically toward D minor.
0:54 [m. 65]--A sudden and
almost violent series of violin triple stops and off-beat piano chords
leads to a strong cadence in A minor.
0:57 [m. 70]--The triple stops
and piano chords are followed by a more urgent statement of the main
gesture in A minor, heard from the piano under longer violin double
stops. The violin figures emerge into a line that runs in
counterpoint to the main melody in the piano.
1:03 [m. 76]--The passage from
0:45 [m. 54] is adapted with some directional changes and instrument
role reversals. It now moves toward B-flat minor.
1:12 [m. 87]--The passage from
0:54 [m. 65] is adapted with the instruments reversing roles and moving
to a cadence in F minor (B-flat--F is analogous to D--A).
1:15 [m. 91]--Urgent statement
of the main gesture, as at 0:57 [m. 70], now in F minor. The
violin now has the gesture itself in double stops (continuing the role
reversal from 1:12 [m. 87]), and the piano plays flowing triplets,
ascending in the left hand and descending in the right.
1:21 [m. 98]--An upward piano
arpeggio in double notes suddenly shifts to major, decreases in volume,
and leads to a surprisingly tender violin statement of the main gesture
in F major. The piano plays an equally gentle adaptation of the
descending three-note figure from that gesture three times under the
violin until that instrument plays it in its “original” position.
There, the piano moves to a more directly harmonizing role before a
1:30 [m. 106]--The
re-transition uses the three-note descending figure to move first back
to F minor and then to the home key of F-sharp minor. The violin
leads back home over slow piano chords and long bass notes, and then
the piano plays a final, highly expressive and chromatic bridge (taking
over from a violin descent), all over a slowing tempo.
1:47 [m. 119]--Restatement of
the opening music, with the violin double stops now played pizzicato (plucked).
2:01 [m. 135]--Corresponds at
the beginning to 0:14 [m. 17] and 0:38 [m. 45]. The violin takes
the bow again for its descending figure. The passage is altered
(specifically the second statement of the phrase) to cadence at home in
F-sharp minor rather than C-sharp minor.
2:08 [m. 144]--The material of
the piano bridge from 0:21 [m. 26] leads into a passionate extension of
the F-sharp minor cadence in violin double stops and sweeping piano
arpeggios. This extension quiets as the piano's notes become
longer (triplet groupings).
2:20 [m. 155]--The violin’s
restatement of the main section from 0:25 [m. 29] is replaced by an
atmospheric coda. That instrument muses extensively on the
opening repeated notes entirely in double stops as the piano plays
light arpeggio fragments and isolated bass notes. There are two
waves of this material, each one very slightly increasing in intensity
before backing off.
2:34 [m. 169]--The double stops
are briefly abandoned at the end of the second “wave” as the violin
approaches an arpeggio flourish that matches the light piano
arpeggios. The piano arpeggios themselves soar upward and drop
out as the violin reaches the top and then descends.
2:40 [m. 175]--The violin
resumes double stops for final cadence. The piano’s final
downward flourish under a sustained violin double stop includes the
descending bass scale figure from 0:25 [m. 29], now broken over five
octaves. Two quiet clinching rolled chords have their top notes
doubled by the violin.
2:48--END OF MOVEMENT [181 mm.]
4th Movement: Presto agitato
(Sonata-Rondo form). D MINOR, 6/8 time.
0:00 [m. 1]--In the brief, but
powerful introduction, the piano
anticipates the main theme with full chords and bass octaves while the
violin has a rapidly oscillating line that seems to be almost “sawed”
with the bow.
0:04 [m. 5]--Theme 1. A
soaring, dramatic violin line is played
against oscillating piano chords similar to the violin “sawing” at the
beginning. The bass has broken octaves in consistent groupings of
three notes with an up-down motion. The theme consists of an
initial downward leap in longer notes followed by an arching
line. This is given twice, the second time reaching higher in the
arching line. The D-minor melody has a strong pull toward A minor.
0:10 [m. 13]--The introduction
is repeated beginning a fourth higher
and ending with a new, stronger half-cadence.
0:14 [m. 17]--Transition.
“Galloping” figures are passed between
the piano and violin. They are interrupted twice by loud
outbursts of the head motive from Theme 1, also passed from piano to
violin. After the second interruption, the music of the
“galloping” figures makes a strong turn to A minor.
0:25 [m. 29]--A third outburst
of the Theme 1 music is extended by a
descent in the piano right hand. This descent in duple rhythm
goes against the prevailing 6/8 flow. The piano line diminishes
to soft chords, and the violin enters with soft double stops. Two
descending low piano notes lead to Theme 2.
0:35 [m. 39]--Theme 2 (C
major/A minor). A noble melody in richly
harmonized piano chords with an active bass. The theme, which
begins in C major, makes a very dark turn toward E minor before the
violin makes a brief entrance. The following chords trail down
and strongly suggest a cadence in E minor that does not arrive.
0:52 [m. 55]--In a sudden and
unprepared return to C major, averting
the expected E-minor cadence, the violin repeats and varies the theme
over continuing rich piano chords that become more and more
syncopated. Through an alteration incorporating a new rising
leap, the violin redirects the dark turn so that it will work toward A
minor rather than E minor. This statement swells and recedes, and
the A- minor cadence is interrupted, then delayed with tension-filled,
breathless rests before the hushed arrival.
1:09 [m. 73]--Closing section
(A minor). It begins with quietly
running piano figures that wind upward, then come rapidly down in an
arpeggio. The music continues with passionate material derived
from Theme 1. The piano has low bass octaves that seem to march
upward while the right hand plays undulating up-down figures under the
violin’s melodic line. The motion is temporarily somewhat arrested by
questioning violin gestures with short piano responses in rising thirds
with octave and chord support.
1:19 [m. 84]--The passionate
melody begins again in the violin, cutting
off the questioning gestures a bar earlier than expected. The
piano imitates the melody after one last rising third figure under the
violin entry. The piano then takes over the actual melody and the
violin continues in anticipatory, rather than imitative
counterpoint. The up-down figures move to the left hand.
The melody is extended and intensified, culminating in the piano’s
statements of the “questioning gestures” with violin imitation a fifth
1: 30 [m. 96]--The closing
section continues with syncopated chords on
weak beats. The violin joins the piano on these exciting
syncopations, which begin quietly and rapidly increase in volume and
tension. The piano left hand has broken octaves on the strong
beats. After a series of octave leaps, the syncopations culminate
in two strong cadence gestures that continue to obscure the beat.
These are echoed by the piano without the violin.
1:41 [m. 108]--Music from the
opening of the closing section at 1:09
[m. 73] returns with the piano imitating, then doubling the
violin. It is extended and metrically displaced. The
material is abruptly cut off after the descending arpeggio.
DEVELOPMENT (Restatement and expansion of Theme 1 material).
1:46 [m. 114]--Brief
introduction from the beginning starting in A
minor, then shifting abruptly at the end to the home key of D minor.
1:49 [m. 118]--Theme 1, as at
0:04 [m. 5], with very slight, subtle
alterations to the piano part, including a new low bass broken octave
at the second statement of the melodic line.
1:56 [m. 126]--Repetition of
introduction a fourth higher, as at 0:10
[m. 13], but it is extended by four abruptly quiet, isolated
middle-range piano chords in the second half of each bar.
2:05 [m. 134]--An expressive
variant of Theme 1 begins in G
minor. It has fewer notes and is accompanied by continuing
isolated mid-range piano chords on the weak half of the bar. The
violin melody starts to become syncopated, and slides upward.
2:13 [m. 142]--The expressive
statement dissolves into a long passage
of syncopation in the violin with theme fragments in the piano.
It begins in B-flat minor.
2:19 [m. 148]--The piano right
hand abandons the expressive theme
fragments and joins the violin in an extended, highly syncopated
passage with most notes coming on the “weakest” beats. The left
hand now plays theme fragments in octaves in C-sharp minor. There
is then a turn to E major.
2:29 [m. 156]--The syncopated
passage continues without theme
fragments. The music intensifies, with the violin climbing
chromatically (in half-steps) then jumping an octave and continuing the
ascent. The half-steps are broken twice by skips. The bass
octaves and the violin ascent are no longer syncopated, but the right
hand chords retain the heavy syncopation. The harmony is
unstable, and moves through F-sharp minor and A major before turning
back to C-sharp/D-flat. Finally, it reaches F minor.
2:39 [m. 168]--The violin
ascent speeds up, joins the piano on the
heavy syncopation, and moves purely by half-steps until it reaches an
oscillation on a very high F and G-flat. There is a great
2:43 [m. 172]--The syncopated
passage culminates in a high statement of
Theme 1 with a clashing duple rhythm in the piano octaves. It
reaches a strong cadence in F minor.
2:46 [m. 176]--There is now
more syncopation in an extremely agitated
passage beginning in F minor and closing the development section (which
has been entirely devoted to Theme 1). The violin plays a
passionate line against rushing, perpetually moving piano
figuration. The music is somewhat reminiscent of the transition
passage from the exposition, into which it leads.
2:56 [m. 187]--The agitated
passage continues, wrenching itself to the
home key of D, here in a major/minor mixture. It flows directly
into the transition passage, picking up from the presentation of Theme
1 at the beginning of the development section.
3:02 [m. 194]--Transition with
galloping figures, as at 0:14 [m.
17]. They now have fuller harmony. The first statement of
the Theme 1 outburst is the same as in the exposition. The second
one is altered, reaching higher so that the music can remain in the
home key of D minor.
3:13 [m. 206]--The third
outburst of the Theme 1 music (from 0:25 [m.
29]) is replaced with further intensification of the galloping figures
and a two-bar extension with a fully harmonized ascending piano
arpeggio. This leads to the right hand descent in duple meter as
previously heard before Theme 2. Soft chords and double stops
follow, and the two low bass notes lead into Theme 2.
3:25 [m. 218]--Theme 2.
The noble melody and chords begin in F
major (“relative” to D minor) and make the “dark turn” to A
minor. The violin enters briefly, as it had before. The
trailing chords suggest a cadence in A minor that is aborted, as was
the E-minor arrival in the exposition.
3:41 [m. 234]--In an unprepared
return to F major, the violin repeats
and varies the second theme over continuing piano chords, which become
syncopated, as at 0:52 [m. 55]. The “dark turn” now
arrives in D minor (the home key). The cadence is interrupted and
delayed with rests, as it was before, and reaches a hushed arrival.
3:58 [m. 252]--Closing section,
as at 1:09 [m. 73] with running piano
figures, passionate violin melody, and questioning gestures with piano
responses. It is now in the home key of D minor.
4:08 [m. 263]--The passionate
melody begins again in the violin,
imitated by the piano, as at 1:19 [m. 84]. The piano again plays
the actual melody with expansion, intensification, and statements of
the “questioning gestures.”
4:19 [m. 275]--The closing
section continues with syncopated chords, as
at 1:30 [m. 96]. They again arrive at two strong cadence gestures
from the violin, which are then echoed by the piano.
4:30 [m. 287]--Music from
opening of the closing section returns, as at
1:41 [m. 108]. It is extended and metrically displaced, then cut
off after the arpeggio.
4:35 [m. 293]--Brief
introduction, as at very beginning.
4:39 [m. 297]--A very
passionate statement of Theme 1, with altered
accompaniment in the second statement. The broken octaves are
replaced by more solid straight octaves, and the right hand chords are
also changed somewhat. The second statement is extended by a
large scale descent, beginning with the violin. The piano enters
in harmony with the descending violin scale, then adds a double third
harmony to its own scale, creating full chords with the violin
line. The piano scales are doubled in both hands.
4:47 [m. 307]--Final statement
of the “brief introduction,” beginning on
B-flat, but moving quickly to the harmonies as heard in the statement
at 0:10 [m. 13] with the strong half-cadence.
4:51 [m. 311]--Another
extremely agitated passage begins with a huge piano
arpeggio doubled in two, then three octaves and turning back
down. The music of the “galloping” transition follows, and then
the huge arpeggio is repeated.
4:57 [m. 317]--Solid descending
chords lead to more of the “galloping”
transition material, still in an extremely agitated, passionate
presentation and including some chromatic notes.
5:04 [m. 325]--The music
suddenly becomes broad and sustained, with
Theme 1 in the piano bass and then the violin. The piano right
hand has the familiar chord and single note oscillations.
The violin statement of the Theme 1 material is extended downward, and
the music both slows down and becomes quiet to maximize the effect of
the coming dramatic gesture.
5:15 [m. 331]--The final
flourish enters suddenly, and is based on the
transition material. The piano shoots upward in harmonized
arpeggios, which dovetail with violin continuations. A rapid
descending piano arpeggio, with a punctuating violin chord and final
note (D), closes the movement in the stern minor key in which it began.
5:23--END OF MOVEMENT [337 mm.]
END OF SONATA
APPLAUSE TO END OF TRACK AT 5:45
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